Comparison of The Shooting Angles In Wheelchair Basketball And Basketball Players
Shooting Angles In Wheelchair Basketball
Keywords:Shooting angle, basketball, wheelchair basketball, kinematics, ball trajectory
Shot accuracy is very important for success in wheelchair basketball (WB) and basketball games. The kinematics of the ball affects the shot accuracy. The main purposes of this study are to compare the kinematics of the ball according to the outcomes of WB and basketball players’ shots and compare the shooting accuracy of WB and basketball players. Male senior athletes (17 basketball, 6 WB) voluntarily participated in the research. Participants made static shots from 6 spots (n=1515) and the analyses were made. The shots were separated into 4 groups. The first group contained the “Clean Shot”s (CS) which the ball goes into the hoop with no or 1 hit to the rim. The second contained all the “Success” shots (S) but CS. The third contained “Missed” shots, the ball hit to the rim. Fourth contained the rest of the missed shots (Air Ball). Reliable and valid 94fifty Smart Sensor Basketball was used in this research. For both WB and basketball players, CS angles were significantly higher than other shots and no significant difference was found between S angles and unsuccessful shots. CS angles of WB players were significantly higher than basketball players. This research showed that the entry angle affects CS for both sports. It is thought that it may raise CS and shooting percentage if coaches train their players by taking entry angles into consideration. Another finding of this study was CS angles of WB players are higher than basketball players. The reason for this may be the more active, hence more improved, upper extremity motor skills of the WB players.
Abdelrasoul, E., Mahmoud, I., Stergiou, P., & Katz, L. (2015). The accuracy of a real-time sensor in an instrumented basketball. Procedia Engineering, 112, 202-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.200
Chen, H.-T., Tien, M.-C., Chen, Y.-W., Tsai, W.-J., & Lee, S.-Y. (2009). Physics-based ball tracking and 3D trajectory reconstruction with applications to shooting location estimation in basketball video. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 20(3), 204-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvcir.2008.11.008
Flueck, J. L. (2020). Body composition in Swiss Elite wheelchair athletes. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7-1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00001
Francis, J. (2019). Sports performance analysis and the analysis in elite wheelchair basketball (Doctoral dissertation, University of Worcester).
Francis, J., Owen, A., Molnar, G., & Peters, D. (2016). Modelling shooting performance in elite men’s wheelchair basketball. Journal of Sports Sciences 34 (Supplement 1): s13, 50-50. https://doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2016.1260807
Francis, J. W., Owen, A. J., & Peters, D. M. (2021). Predicting field-goal success according to offensive, defensive and contextual variables in elite men’s wheelchair basketball. PLoS One, 16(1), e0244257. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244257
Gómez, M. á., Pérez, J., Molik, B., Szyman, R. J., & Sampaio, J. (2014). Performance analysis of elite men’s and women’s wheelchair basketball teams. Journal of sports sciences, 32(11), 1066-1075. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.879334
Hamilton, G. R., & Reinschmidt, C. (1997). Optimal trajectory for the basketball free throw. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15(5), 491-504. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404197367137
Hussain, I., Ahmad, F., & Rani, N. (2017). Investigation of Bio-Kinematic Elements of Three Point Shoot in Basketball. International Journal of Sports Science, 7(4), 163-169.
Ivanković, Z., Racković, M., Markoski, B., Radosav, D., & Ivković, M. (2010). Analysis of basketball games using neural networks. 2010 11th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Informatics (CINTI) pp. 251-256. https://doi/full//10.1109/CINTI.2010.5672237
Khlifa, R., Aouadi, R., Shephard, R., Chelly, M. S., Hermassi, S., & Gabbett, T. J. (2013). Effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter rim on free-throw performance and kinematics in young basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(5), 497-504. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.736634
Lenik, P., & Lenik, J. (2016). The point system and kinematic parameters' analysis of free throw with the use of “94fifty smart basketball” testing tool. Scientific Review of Physical Culture, 5(4), 74-79.
Mačura, P. (2013). Physical factors in basketball shooting.
Malone, L. A., Gervais, P. L., & Steadward, R. D. (2002). Shooting mechanics related to player classification and free throw success in wheelchair basketball. Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 39(6), 701-710.
Mancha-Triguero, D., Garcia-Rubio, J., Calleja-Gonzalez, J., & Ibanez, S. J. (2019). Physical fitness in basketball players: A systematic review. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit, 59, 1513-1525. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09180-1
Marszałek, J., Gryko, K., Kosmol, A., Morgulec-Adamowicz, N., Mróz, A., & Molik, B. (2019). Wheelchair basketball competition heart rate profile according to players’ functional classification, tournament level, game type, game quarter and playing time. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 773. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00773
Marszałek, J., & Molik, B. (2019). Reliability of measurement of active trunk movement in wheelchair basketball players. PLoS One, 14(11), e0225515. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225515
McKay, A. K., Stellingwerff, T., Smith, E. S., Martin, D. T., Mujika, I., Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L., Sheppard, J., & Burke, L. M. (2022). Defining Training and Performance Caliber: A Participant Classification Framework. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 17(2), 317-331. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2021-0451
Novriansyah, N., Irianto, D. P., Rahmat, Y. N., & Nanda, F. A. (2019). Effect of imagery on free-throw shooting in basketball extracurricular. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 7(2), 155-161. https://doi.org/10.21831/jk.v7i2.29319
Okazaki, V. H., Rodacki, A. L., & Satern, M. N. (2015). A review on the basketball jump shot. Sports Biomechanics, 14(2), 190-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2015.1052541
Okazaki, V. H. A., Okazaki, F. H. A., Sasaki, J. E., & Keller, B. (2007). Speed-accuracy relationship in basketball shoot. The Fiep Bulletin, 77, 745-747.
Okazaki, V. H. A., & Rodacki, A. L. F. (2012). Increased distance of shooting on basketball jump shot. Journal of sports science & medicine, 11(2), 231.
Özkan, D., Pezzetta, R., Moreau, Q., Abreu, A., & Aglioti, S. (2019). Predicting the fate of basketball throws: an EEG study on expert action prediction in wheelchair basketball players. Experimental Brain Research, 237(12),3363-3373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05677-x
Prvulovic, N., Hadzovic, M., & Lilic, A. A. (2022) Biomechanical Analysis of the Free Throw Shooting Technique in Wheelchair Basketball: A Pilot Study. https://doi.org/10.26773/jaspe.220101
Rupčić, T., Knjaz, D., Baković, M., Devrnja, A., & Matković, B. (2015a). Impact of fatigue on accuracy and changes in certain kinematic parameters during shooting in basketball. Hrvatski Športskomedicinski Vjesnik, 1(30), 15.
Rupčić T, Antekolović L, Knjaz D, Matković B, Cigrovski V. (2015b). Reliability analysis of the 94 fifty smart sensor basketball. 10th Interantional Conference on Kinanthropology “Sport and Quality Life”. Masaryk University, Faculty of Sports Studies; 432-8
Schwark, B. N., Mackenzie, S. J., & Sprigings, E. J. (2004). Optimizing the release conditions for a free throw in wheelchair basketball. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 20(2), 153-166. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.20.2.153
Shigematsu, S., Ogawa, M., Neya, M., Fujiwara, M., & Nakata, H. (2021). The relationship between free-throw accuracy and performance variables in male wheelchair basketball players. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2022.174.18
Sindik, J., & Jukić, I. (2011). Differences in situation efficacy indicators at the elite basketball players that play on different positions in the team. Collegium Antropologicum, 35(4), 1095-1104.
Soylu, Ç., Yıldırım, N. Ü., Akalan, C., Akınoğlu, B., & Kocahan, T. (2020). The Relationship Between Athletic Performance and Physiological Characteristics in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1762834
Zacharakis, E. (2020). The effect of upper limb characteristics on palm strength, anaerobic power, and technical skills of wheelchair basketball players of varying classification. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(2), 584-591. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.02086
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.