Effect of the type of footwear on biomechanical parameters in the foot contact phase in middle-distance runners


  • Carlos Zingsem
  • Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila
  • Francisco Javier Rojas


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of two types of running shoes: standard training shoes and racing shoes, on kinematic and kinetic parameters of the foot contact phase in middle-distance runners. Thirteen male athletes with an experience in national and international competition have participated. Data was collected using a force platform operating at 500 Hz, and three video cameras operating at 210 Hz. An electronic signal was used to synchronize the temporary registration systems. Participants passed through all experimental conditions, one of them using their racing shoes and the other using their standard training shoes. Runners were informed to place their dominant foot in the force platform, located on one of the lanes of the running track. Running speed was stablished at two levels: reduced and competition velocity, respectively. Results have demonstrated that wearing standard training shoes promote a heel strike pattern, whereas wearing racing shoes promote a midfoot strike and a greater angular displacement of the ankle joint. Data relating to horizontal component of the ground reaction forces allow us to state that at low running speeds, standard training shoes are more efficient than racing shoes.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


de Leva, P. (1996). Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's segment inertia parameters. Journal of Biomechanics, 1223-1230.

De Wit, B., De Clercq, D., & Aerts, P. (2000). Biomechanical analysis of the stance phase during barefoot and shod running. Journal of Biomechanics, 33: 269-278.

Divert, C., Mornieux, G., Baur, H., Mayer, F., & Belli, A. (2005). Mechanical comparison of barefoot and shod running. International Journal of Sport Medicine, 26: 593-598.

Divert, C., Mornieux, G., Freychat, P., Baly, L., Mayer, F., & Belli, A. (2008). Barefoot-Shod running differences: shoe or mass effect? International Journal of Sport Medicine, 29: 512-518.

Farley, C., & González, O. (1996). Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running. Journal of Biomechanics, 29 (2): 181-6.

Gutiérrez-Dávila, M., Dapena, J., & Campos, J. (2006). The effect of muscular pre-tentsing on the sprint star. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 22 (3): 194-201.

Lieberman, D., Madhusudhan, V., Werbel, W., Daoud, A., D'Andrea, S., Davis, I., y otros. (2010). Foot strike patterns and collisión forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature, Vol. 463.

Morin, J., Samozino, P., Zameziati, K., & Belli, A. (2007). Effects of altered stride frequency and contact time on leg-spring behavior in human running. Journal of Biomechanics, 40: 3341-3348.

Mullen, S., & Toby, B. (2013). Adolescent runners: The effect of training shoes on running kinematics. Journal of Pedriatics Orthopedics, 33: 453-457.

Nigg, B. (1986). Biomechanics aspects of running shoes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Nigg, B., & Segesser, B. (1986). Running shoes - A means of preventing running complaints. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete, 124 (6): 765-771.

Nigg, B., Bahlsen, H., Luethi, S., & Stokes, S. (1987). The influence of running velocity and midsole hardness on external impact forces in hel-toe running. Journal of Biomechanics, 20: 951-959.

Verdejo, R., & Mills, N. (2004). Heel-shoe interactions and the durability of EVA foam running-shoe midsoles. Journal of Biomechanics, 37(9):1379-86.

Winter, D. (1990). Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Zatsiorsky, V., & Seluyanov, N. (1983). The mass and inertial characteristics of the main segments of the human body (Vols. Biomechanics VIII-B). (H. Matsui, & K. Kobayashi, Edits.) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.






Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)