Assessment of physical fitness in military and security forces: a systematic review


  • Manuel Herrador-Colmenero
  • Ginés Fernández-Vicente
  • Jonatan R. Ruiz


The aim of this systematic review was to comprehensively study the physical fitness test and batteries used by military and security forces. Our ultimate goal was to propose a physical fitness test battery to be used in military and security forces based on the currently available evidence. A literature search was conducted using four electronic databases; MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORTDISCUS and PUBMED and two search platform; OVID and EBSCOhot. Four categories of search terms were identified: assessment, tool, fitness and organization. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to determine whether the studies met the inclusion criteria. The electronic search strategy produced 5,492 studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, we identified a total of 193 studies. One hundred fifty-six studies (80.83%) assessed cardiorespiratory fitness, 133 studies (68.91%) assessed muscle skeletal fitness, 16 studies (8.29%) assessed motor fitness and 124 studies (64.25%) assessed body composition. The test that has been used the most included the 2.4 km run, sit-ups and pull-ups tests as well as body mass index, percentage of body fat measured by skinfold thickness and body weight and fat free mass. Meanwhile more evidence is accumulated in military and security forces, these tests should be included when assessing physical fitness in this population setting.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Aandstad, A., Hageberg, R., Saether, O., & Nilsen, R. O. (2012). Change in anthropometrics and aerobic fitness in Air Force cadets during 3 years of academy studies. Aviat Space Environ Med, 83(1), 35-41.

Aandstad, A., Holme, I., Berntsen, S., & Anderssen, S. A. (2011). Validity and reliability of the 20 meter shuttle run test in military personnel. Mil Med, 176(5), 513-518.

Aberg, M. A. I., Pedersen, N. L., Torén, K., Svartengren, M., Bäckstrand, B., Johnsson, T., Kuhn, H. G. (2009). Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(49), 20906-20911.

Adler, A. B., Thomas, J. L., & Castro, C. A. (2005). Measuring up: comparing self-reports with unit records for assessing soldier performance. Military Psychology, 17(1), 3-24.

Aidman, E., & Crameri, R. (2006). Effort perception and aerobic capacity in specialised military fitness assessment. (Abstract). Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 9(6 Suppl), 19-19.

Altarac, M., Gardner, J. W., Popovich, R. M., Potter, R., Knapik, J. J., & Jones, B. H. (2000). Cigarette smoking and exercise-related injuries among young men and women. American journal of preventive medicine, 18(3 Suppl), 96-102.

Armentano, M. J., Brenner, A. K., Hedman, T. L., Solomon, Z. T., Chavez, J., Kemper, G. B., Christie, D. S. (2007). The effect and safety of short-term creatine supplementation on performance of push-ups. Mil Med, 172(3), 312-317.

Arora, R., Lettieri, C., & Claybaugh, J. R. (2004). The effects of residency on physical fitness among military physicians. Mil Med, 169(7), 522-525.

Ash, P., Cates, J. N., & Virginia Dept of State, P. (1978). No Sacrifice Too Great - Technical Report for State Trooper Selection Procedure. United States.

Aslani, A., Kheirkhah, J., & Sobhani, V. (2011). Cardio-pulmonary fitness test by ultra-short heart rate variability. J Cardiovasc Dis Res, 2(4), 233-236.

Bathalon, G. P., McGraw, S. M., Sharp, M. A., Williamson, D. A., Young, A. J., & Friedl, K. E. (2006). The effect of proposed improvements to the Army Weight Control Program on female soldiers. Mil Med, 171(8), 800-805.

Bedno, S. A., Cowan, D. N., Urban, N., & Niebuhr, D. W. (2012). Effect of pre-accession physical fitness on training injuries among US Army recruits. Work.

Bedno, S. A., Lang, C. E., Daniell, W. E., Wiesen, A. R., Datu, B., & Niebuhr, D. W. (2010). Association of weight at enlistment with enrollment in the Army Weight Control Program and subsequent attrition in the Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength Study. Mil Med, 175(3), 188-193.

Bedno, S. A., Li, Y., Han, W., Cowan, D. N., Scott, C. T., Cavicchia, M. A., & Niebuhr, D. W. (2010). Exertional heat illness among overweight U.S. Army recruits in basic training. Aviat Space Environ Med, 81(2), 107-111.

Bigelman, K. A., Fan, E. H., Chapman, D. P., Freese, E. C., Trilk, J. L., & Cureton, K. J. (2010). Effects of six weeks of quercetin supplementation on physical performance in ROTC cadets. Mil Med, 175(10), 791-798.

Bilzon, J. L., Scarpello, E. G., Bilzon, E., & Allsopp, A. J. (2002). Generic task-related occupational requirements for Royal Naval personnel. Occup Med (Lond), 52(8), 503-510.

Bilzon, J. L., Scarpello, E. G., Smith, C. V., Ravenhill, N. A., & Rayson, M. P. (2001). Characterization of the metabolic demands of simulated shipboard Royal Navy fire-fighting tasks. Ergonomics, 44(8), 766-780.

Bishop, P. A., Fielitz, L. R., Crowder, T. A., Anderson, C. L., Smith, J. H., & Derrick, K. R. (1999). Physiological determinants of performance on an indoor military obstacle course test. Mil Med, 164(12), 891-896.

Bohnker, B. K., Sack, D. M., Wedierhold, L., & Malakooti, M. (2005). Navy physical readiness test scores and body mass index (spring 2002 cycle). Military medicine, 170(10), 851-854.

Booth, C., Coad, R., & Roberts, W. (2003). Evaluation of an Australian combat ration pack as a sole nutrition source during 23 days of military adventurous training in the tropics. Nutrition & Dietetics, 60(4), 239-247.

Boyce, R., Jones, G., Lloyd, C., & Boone, E. (2008). A longitudinal observation of police: body composition changes over 12 years with gender and race comparisons. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 11(6), 1-13.

Boyce, R. W., Jones, G. R., Schendt, K. E., Lloyd, C. L., & Boone, E. L. (2009). Longitudinal changes in strength of police officers with gender comparisons. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 23(8), 2411-2418.

Brenner, I. K. M., Severs, Y. D., Rhind, S. G., Shephard, R. J., & Shek, P. N. (2000). Immune function and incidence of infection during basic infantry training. Military medicine, 165(11), 878-883.

Bricknell, M. C. (1997). Setting heat stress limits for acclimatised soldiers exercising in heat. J R Army Med Corps, 143(1), 44-48.

Brock, J. R., & Legg, S. J. (1997). The effects of 6 weeks training on the physical fitness of female recruits to the British army. Ergonomics, 40(3), 400-411.

Brothers, M. D., Doan, B. K., Zupan, M. F., Wile, A. L., Wilber, R. L., & Byrnes, W. C. (2010). Hematological and physiological adaptations following 46 weeks of moderate altitude residence. High Alt Med Biol, 11(3), 199-208.

Burger, S. C., Bertram, S. R., & Stewart, R. I. (1990). Assessment of the 2.4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity. S Afr Med J, 78(6), 327-329.

Burke, B. G., Kemery, E. R., Sauser, W. I., & Dyer, F. N. (1989). Intelligence and physical fitness as predictors of success in early infantry training. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 69(1), 263-271.

Carlson, M. J., & Jaenen, S. P. (2012). The development of a preselection physical fitness training program for Canadian Special Operations Regiment applicants. J Strength Cond Res, 26 Suppl 2, S2-14.

Cederberg, H., Mikkola, I., Jokelainen, J., Laakso, M., Härkönen, P., Ikäheimo, T., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2011). Exercise during military training improves cardiovascular risk factors in young men. Atherosclerosis, 216(2), 489-495.

Ceriani, R. B., de Pontes, L. M., & de Sousa, M. d. S. C. (2008). Maximum consumption of oxygen in step test: a longitudinal study in students of the Preparatory Nucleus of Reservation Officials. Fitness & Performance Journal (Online Edition), 7(2), 76-80.

Conway, T. L., & Cronan, T. A. (1992). Smoking, exercise, and physical fitness. Prev Med, 21(6), 723-734.

Cowan, D. N., Bedno, S. A., Urban, N., Lee, D. S., & Niebuhr, D. W. (2012). Step test performance and risk of stress fractures among female army trainees. Am J Prev Med, 42(6), 620-624.

Crombie, A. P., Pei-Yang, L., Ormsbee, M. J., & Ilich, J. Z. (2012). Weight and Body-Composition Change During the College Freshman Year in Male General-Population Students and Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Cadets. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 22(6), 412-421.

Croteau, K. A. (2001). Correlates of physical fitness improvement among a Navy remedial exercise sample. Military medicine, 166(6), 520-525.

Croteau, K. A., & Young, C. J. (2000). Effectiveness of a Navy remedial exercise intervention. Mil Med, 165(10), 786-790.

Chai, L. Y., Ong, K. C., Kee, A., Earnest, A., Lim, F. C., & Wong, J. C. (2009). A prospective cohort study on the impact of a modified Basic Military Training (mBMT) programme based on pre-enlistment fitness stratification amongst Asian military enlistees. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 38(10), 862-868.

Childs, J. D., Teyhen, D. S., Benedict, T. M., Morris, J. B., Fortenberry, A. D., McQueen, R. M., George, S. Z. (2009). Effects of sit-up training versus core stabilization exercises on sit-up performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(11), 2072-2083.

Childs, J. D., Teyhen, D. S., Casey, P. R., McCoy-Singh, K. A., Feldtmann, A. W., Wright, A. C., George, S. Z. (2010). Effects of traditional sit-up training versus core stabilization exercises on short-term musculoskeletal injuries in US Army soldiers: a cluster randomized trial. Phys Ther, 90(10), 1404-1412.

Christensen, P. A., Jacobsen, O., Thorlund, J. B., Madsen, T., Moller, C., Jensen, C., Aagaard, P. (2008). Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions: a preliminary report. Mil Med, 173(9), 889-894.

Del Sal, M., Barbieri, E., Garbati, P., Sisti, D., Rocchi, M. B., & Stocchi, V. (2009). Physiologic responses of firefighter recruits during a supervised live-fire work performance test. J Strength Cond Res, 23(8), 2396-2404.

Demeritt, K. M., Shultz, S. J., Docherty, C. L., Gansneder, B. M., & Perrin, D. H. (2002). Chronic Ankle Instability Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Functional Performance. J Athl Train, 37(4), 507-511.

Dregval, L., & Vaicaitiene, R. (2006). Anthropometrical data and physical fitness of Lithuanian soldiers according to the sociodemographic characteristics. Medicina (Kaunas), 42(1), 57-63.

Dyrstad, S. M., Miller, B. W., & Hallen, J. (2007). Physical fitness, training volume, and self-determined motivation in soldiers during a peacekeeping mission. Mil Med, 172(2), 121-127.

Erikssen, G. (2001). Physical fitness and changes in mortality: the survival of the fittest. Sports Med, 31(8), 571-576.

Evans, R. K., Antczak, A. J., Lester, M., Yanovich, R., Israeli, E., & Moran, D. S. (2008). Effects of a 4-month recruit training program on markers of bone metabolism. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(11), S660-670.

Finestone, A., Milgrom, C., Evans, R., Yanovich, R., Constantini, N., & Moran, D. S. (2008). Overuse injuries in female infantry recruits during low-intensity basic training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(11), S630-635.

Fothergill, D. M., & Sims, J. R. (2000). Aerobic performance of Special Operations Forces personnel after a prolonged submarine deployment. Ergonomics, 43(10), 1489-1500.

Fothergill, D. M., & Sims, J. R. (2002). Chapter 5: Aerobic performance of Special Operations Forces personnel after a prolonged submarine deployment. Advances in Sport, Leisure & Ergonomics, 55-66.

Foynes, M. M., Shipherd, J. C., & Harrington, E. F. (2013). Race and gender discrimination in the Marines. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol, 19(1), 111-119.

Friedl, K. E., & Leu, J. R. (2002). Body fat standards and individual physical readiness in a randomized Army sample: screening weights, methods of fat assessment, and linkage to physical fitness. Mil Med, 167(12), 994-1000.

Frykman, P. N., Harman, E. A., Opstad, P. K., Hoyt, R. W., DeLany, J. P., & Friedl, K. E. (2003). Effects of a 3-month endurance event on physical performance and body composition: the G2 trans-Greenland expedition. Wilderness Environ Med, 14(4), 240-248.

Gambera, P. J., Schneeman, B. O., & Davis, P. A. (1995). Use of the Food Guide Pyramid and US Dietary Guidelines to improve dietary intake and reduce cardiovascular risk in active-duty Air Force members. J Am Diet Assoc, 95(11), 1268-1273.

Garber, C. E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M. R., Franklin, B. A., Lamonte, M. J., Lee, I. M., Swain, D. P. (2011). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43(7), 1334-1359.

Gardner, J. W., Kark, J. A., Karnei, K., Sanborn, J. S., Gastaldo, E., Burr, P., & Wenger, C. B. (1996). Risk factors predicting exertional heat illness in male Marine Corps recruits. / Facteurs de risque predisant un malaise lie a une augmentation de la temperature corporelle pendant un effort physique chez les recrues du corps des Marines. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28(8), 939-944.

George, S. Z., Childs, J. D., Teyhen, D. S., Wu, S. S., Wright, A. C., Dugan, J. L., & Robinson, M. E. (2012). Predictors of occurrence and severity of first time low back pain episodes: findings from a military inception cohort. PLoS One, 7(2), 1-e30597.

Giovannetti, J. M., Bemben, M., Bemben, D., & Cramer, J. (2012). Relationship between estimated aerobic fitness and injury rates among active duty at an Air Force base based upon two separate measures of estimated cardiovascular fitness. Mil Med, 177(1), 36-40.

Goodall, R. L., Pope, R. P., Coyle, J. A., & Neumayer, R. (2012). Balance and agility training does not always decrease lower limb injury risks: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.

Graham, W. F., Hourani, L. L., Sorenson, D., & Yuan, H. (2000). Demographic differences in body composition of Navy and Marine Corps personnel: findings from the perception of wellness and readiness assessment. Mil Med, 165(1), 60-69.

Grant, S., Corbett, K., Amjad, A. M., Wilson, J., & Aitchison, T. (1995). A comparison of methods of predicting maximum oxygen uptake. Br J Sports Med, 29(3), 147-152.

Gregg, R. L., Banderet, L. E., Reynolds, K. L., Creedon, J. F., & Rice, V. J. (2002). Psychological factors that influence traumatic injury occurrence and physical performance. Work, 18(2), 133-139.

Grosz, A., Toth, E., & Peter, I. (2007). A 10-year follow-up of ischemic heart disease risk factors in military pilots. Mil Med, 172(2), 214-219.

Gubata, M. E., Cowan, D. N., Bedno, S. A., Urban, N., & Niebuhr, D. W. (2011). Self-reported physical activity and preaccession fitness testing in U.S. Army applicants. Mil Med, 176(8), 922-925.

Guezennec, C. Y., Satabin, P., Legrand, H., & Bigard, A. X. (1994). Physical performance and metabolic changes induced by combined prolonged exercise and different energy intakes in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology & Occupational Physiology, 68(6), 525-530.

Hamari, A., Toljamo, T., Nieminen, P., & Kinnula, V. L. (2010). High frequency of chronic cough and sputum production with lowered exercise capacity in young smokers. Ann Med, 42(7), 512-520.

Hammermeister, J., Pickering, M. A., McGraw, L., & Ohlson, C. (2010). Relationship Between Psychological Skill Profiles and Soldier Physical Fitness Performance. Military Psychology, 22(4), 399-411.

Hansen, A. L., Johnsen, B. H., Sollers, J. J., 3rd, Stenvik, K., & Thayer, J. F. (2004). Heart rate variability and its relation to prefrontal cognitive function: the effects of training and detraining. Eur J Appl Physiol, 93(3), 263-272.

Harman, E. A., Gutekunst, D. J., Frykman, P. N., Nindl, B. C., Alemany, J. A., Mello, R. P., & Sharp, M. A. (2008). Effects of two different eight-week training programs on military physical performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 22(2), 524-534.

Harman, E. A., Gutekunst, D. J., Frykman, P. N., Sharp, M. A., Nindl, B. C., Alemany, J. A., & Mello, R. P. (2008). Prediction of simulated battlefield physical performance from field-expedient tests. Mil Med, 173(1), 36-41.

Heinrich, K. M., Spencer, V., Fehl, N., & Poston, W. S. (2012). Mission essential fitness: comparison of functional circuit training to traditional Army physical training for active duty military. Mil Med, 177(10), 1125-1130.

Heir, T., & Eide, G. (1996). Age, body composition, aerobic fitness and health condition as risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in conscripts. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 6(4), 222-227.

Heir, T., & Eide, G. (1997). Injury proneness in infantry conscripts undergoing a physical training programme: smokeless tobacco use, higher age, and low levels of physical fitness are risk factors. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 7(5), 304-311.

Hickey, J. P., Donne, B., & O'Brien, D. (2012). Effects of an eight week military training program on aerobic indices and psychomotor function. J R Army Med Corps, 158(1), 41-46.

Hoad, N. A., & Clay, D. N. (1992). Smoking impairs the response to a physical training regime: a study of officer cadets. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 138(3), 115-117.

Hodgdon, J. A., Friedl, K. E., Beckett, M. B., Westphal, K. A., & Shippee, R. L. (1996). Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements as predictors of physical performance. Am J Clin Nutr, 64(3 Suppl), 463S-468S.

Hofstetter, M. C., Mader, U., & Wyss, T. (2012). Effects of a 7-week outdoor circuit training program on Swiss Army recruits. J Strength Cond Res, 26(12), 3418-3425.

Hoover, L. T. (1992). Trends in police physical ability selection testing. Public Personnel Management, 21(1), 29.

Hoyt, R. W., Opstad, P. K., Haugen, A. H., DeLany, J. P., Cymerman, A., & Friedl, K. E. (2006). Negative energy balance in male and female rangers: effects of 7 d of sustained exercise and food deprivation. Am J Clin Nutr, 83(5), 1068-1075.

Huang, W. S., Yu, M. D., Lee, M. S., Cheng, C. Y., Yang, S. P., Chin, H. M., & Wu, S. Y. (2004). Effect of treadmill exercise on circulating thyroid hormone measurements. Med Princ Pract, 13(1), 15-19.

JØrgensen, T., Andersen, L. B., Froberg, K., Maeder, U., von Huth Smith, L., & Aadahl, M. (2009). Position statement: Testing physical condition in a population – how good are the methods? European Journal of Sport Science, 9(5), 257-267.

Jauregui Lobera, I., Tomillo Cid, S., Santiago Fernandez, M. J., & Bolanos Rios, P. (2011). Body shape model, physical activity and eating behaviour. Nutr Hosp, 26(1), 201-207.

Jeraj, M., Burnik, S., & Pori, M. (2010). Influence of voluntary military service programme on some motor and functional abilities of soldiers. Sport: Revija Za Teoreticna in Prakticna Vprasanja Sporta, 58(3/4), 46-49.

Jones, B., & Knapik, J. (1999). Physical Training and Exercise-Related Injuries. Surveillance, Research and Injury Prevention in Military Populations. Sports Medicine, 27(2), 111-125.

Jones, B. H., Bovee, M. W., Harris, J. M., 3rd, & Cowan, D. N. (1993). Intrinsic risk factors for exercise-related injuries among male and female army trainees. Am J Sports Med, 21(5), 705-710.

Jouanin, J. C., Dussault, C., Van Beers, P., Pierard, C., & Beaumont, M. (2009). Short half-life hypnotics preserve physical fitness and altitude tolerance during military mountainous training. Mil Med, 174(9), 964-970.

Kaiser, K. S., Hawksworth, A. W., & Gray, G. C. (2000). Pyridostigmine bromide intake during the Persian Gulf War is not associated with postwar handgrip strength. Military medicine, 165(3), 165-168.

Kinnunen, M. I., Suihko, J., Hankonen, N., Absetz, P., & Jallinoja, P. (2012). Self-control is associated with physical activity and fitness among young men. Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.), 38(3), 83-89.

Knapik, J., Daniels, W., Murphy, M., Fitzgerald, P., Drews, F., & Vogel, J. (1990). Physiological factors in infantry operations. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 60(3), 233-238.

Knapik, J., Darakjy, S., Scott, S. J., Hauret, K. G., Canada, S., Marin, R., Jones, B. H. (2005). Evaluation of a standardized physical training program for basic combat training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Allen Press Publishing Services Inc.), 19(2), 246-253.

Knapik, J., Harman, E., Steelman, R., & Graham, B. (2012). A systematic review of the effects of physocal training on load carriage performance. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 26(2), 558-597.

Knapik, J. J., Canham-Chervak, M., Hauret, K., Hoedebecke, E., Laurin, M. J., & Cuthie, J. (2001). Discharges during U.S. Army basic training: injury rates and risk factors. Military medicine, 166(7), 641-647.

Knapik, J. J., Canham-Chervak, M., Hoedebecke, E., Hewitson, W. C., Hauret, K., Held, C., & Sharp, M. A. (2001). The fitness training unit is U.S. Army basic combat training: physical fitness, training outcomes, and injuries. Military medicine, 166(4), 356-361.

Knapik, J. J., Darakjy, S., Hauret, K. G., Canada, S., Scott, S., Rieger, W., Jones, B. H. (2006). Increasing the physical fitness of low-fit recruits before basic combat training: an evaluation of fitness, injuries, and training outcomes. Mil Med, 171(1), 45-54.

Knapik, J. J., Hauret, K. G., Arnold, S., Canham-Chervak, M., Mansfield, A. J., Hoedebecke, E. L., & McMillian, D. (2003). Injury and fitness outcomes during implementation of physical readiness training. Int J Sports Med, 24(5), 372-381.

Knapik, J. J., Jones, B. H., Vogel, J. A., Banderet, L. E., Bahrke, M. S., & O'Connor, J. S. (1996). Influence of age and body mass index on measures of physical fitness in U.S. Army soldiers. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 4(3), 234-250.

Knapik, J. J., Sharp, M. A., Canham-Chervak, M., Hauret, K., Patton, J. F., & Jones, B. H. (2001). Risk factors for training-related injuries among men and women in basic combat training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(6), 946-954.

Knapik, J. J., Spiess, A., Swedler, D., Grier, T., Hauret, K., Yoder, J., & Jones, B. H. (2011). Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training. J Occup Med Toxicol, 6, 26.

Kraemer, W. J., Vescovi, J. D., Volek, J. S., Nindl, B. C., Newton, R. U., Patton, J. F., Häkkinen, K. (2004). Effects of concurrent resistance and aerobic training on load-bearing performance and the Army Physical Fitness Test. Military medicine, 169(12), 994-999.

Kyröläinen, H., Häkkinen, K., Kautiainen, H., Santtila, M., Pihlainen, K., & Häkkinen, A. (2008). Physical fitness, BMI and sickness absence in male military personnel. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 58(4), 251-256.

Lagarde, D., Chappuis, B., Billaud, P. F., Ramont, L., Chauffard, F., & French, J. (2001). Evaluation of pharmacological aids on physical performance after a transmeridian flight. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(4), 628-634.

Larsson, H., Tegern, M., & Harms-Ringdahl, K. (2012). Influence of the implementation of a comprehensive intervention programme on premature discharge outcomes from military training. Work, 42(2), 241-251.

Lester, M. E., Knapik, J. J., Catrambone, D., Antczak, A., Sharp, M. A., Burrell, L., & Darakjy, S. (2010). Effect of a 13-month deployment to Iraq on physical fitness and body composition. Mil Med, 175(6), 417-423.

Leyk, D., Rohde, U., Erley, O., Gorges, W., Wunderlich, M., Ruther, T., & Essfeld, D. (2006). Recovery of hand grip strength and hand steadiness after exhausting manual stretcher carriage. Eur J Appl Physiol, 96(5), 593-599.

Lunt, H. (2007). A pre-joining fitness test improves pass rates of Royal Navy recruits. Occup Med (Lond), 57(5), 377-379.

Mattila, V. M., Tallroth, K., Marttinen, M., Ohrankammen, O., & Pihlajamaki, H. (2009). DEXA body composition changes among 140 conscripts. Int J Sports Med, 30(5), 348-353.

Mattila, V. M., Tallroth, K., Marttinen, M., & Pihlajamäki, H. (2007). Body composition by DEXA and its association with physical fitness in 140 conscripts. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(12), 2242-2247.

McAuley, P., Myers, J., Abella, J., & Froelicher, V. (2007). Body mass, fitness and survival in veteran patients: another obesity paradox? Am J Med, 120(6), 518-524.

McClung, J. P., Karl, J. P., Cable, S. J., Williams, K. W., Nindl, B. C., Young, A. J., & Lieberman, H. R. (2009). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation in female soldiers during military training: effects on iron status, physical performance, and mood. Am J Clin Nutr, 90(1), 124-131.

McClung, J. P., Karl, J. P., Cable, S. J., Williams, K. W., Young, A. J., & Lieberman, H. R. (2009). Longitudinal decrements in iron status during military training in female soldiers. Br J Nutr, 102(4), 605-609.

McGill, S., Frost, D., Andersen, J., Crosby, I., & Gardiner, D. (2012). Movement quality and links to measures of fitness in firefighters. Work.

McMillian, D. J., Moore, J. H., Hatler, B. S., & Taylor, D. C. (2006). Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect of power and agility performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Allen Press Publishing Services Inc.), 20(3), 492-499.

Mikkola, I., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Jokelainen, J., Peitso, A., Harkonen, P., Timonen, M., & Ikaheimo, T. (2012). Aerobic performance and body composition changes during military service. Scand J Prim Health Care, 30(2), 95-100.

Moran, D. S., Finestone, A. S., Arbel, Y., Shabshin, N., & Laor, A. (2012). A simplified model to predict stress fracture in young elite combat recruits. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 26(9), 2585-2592.

Moran, D. S., Israeli, E., Evans, R. K., Yanovich, R., Constantini, N., Shabshin, N., Finestone, A. (2008). Prediction model for stress fracture in young female recruits during basic training. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(11 Suppl), S636-S644.

Myers, J., Prakash, M., Froelicher, V., Do, D., Partington, S., & Atwood, J. E. (2002). Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med, 346(11), 793-801.

Myklebust, G., Engebretsen, L., Braekken, I. H., Skjolberg, A., Olsen, O. E., & Bahr, R. (2003). Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players: a prospective intervention study over three seasons. Clin J Sport Med, 13(2), 71-78.

Neovius, K., Neovius, M., Kark, M., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Association between obesity status and sick-leave in Swedish men: nationwide cohort study. European journal of public health, 22(1), 112-116.

Neovius, K., Rehnberg, C., Rasmussen, F., & Neovius, M. (2012). Lifetime productivity losses associated with obesity status in early adulthood: a population-based study of Swedish men. Applied health economics and health policy, 10(5), 309-317.

Neovius, M., Kark, M., & Rasmussen, F. (2008). Association between obesity status in young adulthood and disability pension. Int J Obes (Lond), 32(8), 1319-1326.

Neovius, M., & Rasmussen, F. (2008). Place of residence and obesity in 1,578,694 young Swedish men between 1969 and 2005. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 16(3), 671-676.

Niebuhr, D. W., Scott, C. T., Li, Y., Bedno, S. A., Han, W., & Powers, T. E. (2009). Preaccession fitness and body composition as predictors of attrition in U.S. Army recruits. Mil Med, 174(7), 695-701.

Niebuhr, D. W., Scott, C. T., Powers, T. E., Li, Y., Han, W., Millikan, A. M., & Krauss, M. R. (2008). Assessment of recruit motivation and strength study: preaccession physical fitness assessment predicts early attrition. Mil Med, 173(6), 555-562.

Nindl, B. C., Barnes, B. R., Alemany, J. A., Frykman, P. N., Shippee, R. L., & Friedl, K. E. (2007). Physiological consequences of U.S. Army Ranger training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(8), 1380-1387.

Nindl, B. C., Leone, C. D., Tharion, W. J., Johnson, R. F., Castellani, J. W., Patton, J. F., & Montain, S. J. (2002). Physical performance responses during 72 h of military operational stress. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(11), 1814-1822.

Nindl, B. C., Scofield, D. E., Strohbach, C. A., Centi, A. J., Evans, R. K., Yanovich, R., & Moran, D. S. (2012). IGF-I, IGFBPs, and inflammatory cytokine responses during gender-integrated Israeli Army basic combat training. J Strength Cond Res, 26 Suppl 2, S73-81.

Novack, V., Finestone, A. S., Constantini, N., Shpilberg, O., Weitzman, S., & Merkel, D. (2007). The prevalence of low hemoglobin values among new infantry recruits and nonlinear relationship between hemoglobin concentration and physical fitness. Am J Hematol, 82(2), 128-133.

O'Hara, R. B., Khan, M., Schlub, J. F., Pohlman, R. L., Laubach, L. L., & Eveland, E. (2007). Effects of increased leg resistance training and reduced aerobic training on selected physiological parameters in United States air force men and women. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 10(5), 16-34.

Oliveira Ede, A., & Anjos, L. A. (2008). [Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness of military men in active duty, Brazil]. Rev Saude Publica, 42(2), 217-223.

Olsen, O. E., Myklebust, G., Engebretsen, L., Holme, I., & Bahr, R. (2005). Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 330(7489), 449.

Pandorf, C. E., Nindl, B. C., Montain, S. J., Castellani, J. W., Frykman, P. N., Leone, C. D., & Harman, E. A. (2003). Reliability assessment of two militarily relevant occupational physical performance tests. Can J Appl Physiol, 28(1), 27-37.

Piirainen, J. M., Salmi, J. A., Avela, J., & Linnamo, V. (2008). Effect of body composition on the neuromuscular function of Finnish conscripts during an 8-week basic training period. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 22(6), 1916-1925.

Pipes, T. V. (1977). Physiological responses of fire fighting recruits to high intensity training. Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association, 19(2), 129-132.

Pope, R. P., Herbert, R., Kirwan, J. D., & Graham, B. J. (1999). Predicting attrition in basic military training. Mil Med, 164(10), 710-714.

Popovich, R. M., Gardner, J. W., Potter, R., Knapik, J. J., & Jones, B. H. (2000). Effect of rest from running on overuse injuries in army basic training. American journal of preventive medicine, 18(3 Suppl), 147-155.

Pori, P., Tušak, M., & Pori, M. (2010). Which motor abilities have the highest impact on working performance of slovenian soldiers? Biology of Sport, 27(4), 301-305.

Prieto Saborit, J. A., Del Valle Soto, M., Montoliú Sanclement, M. A., Martínez Suárez, P. C., Nistal Hernández, P., & González Díez, V. (2010). Relation between the perception of the aerobic capacity and the VO 2max in firemen. Psicothema, 22(1), 131-136.

Rayson, M., Holliman, D., & Belyavin, A. (2000). Development of physical selection procedures for the British Army. Phase 2: relationship between physical performance tests and criterion tasks. Ergonomics, 43(1), 73-105.

Rayson, M. P., Harwood, G. E., & Nevill, A. M. (1999). Fitness, performance, and risk of injury in British Army officer cadets. Military medicine, 164(6), 428-434.

Reynolds, K., Cosio-Lima, L., Creedon, J., Gregg, R., & Zigmont, T. (2002). Injury occurrence and risk factors in construction engineers and combat artillery soldiers. Military medicine, 167(12), 971-977.

Reynolds, K. L., White, J. S., Knapik, J. J., Witt, C. E., & Amoroso, P. J. (1999). Injuries and risk factors in a 100-mile (161-km) infantry road march. Preventive medicine, 28(2), 167-173.

Ricciardi, R., Deuster, P. A., & Talbot, L. A. (2007). Effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to physical work while wearing body armor. Mil Med, 172(7), 743-748.

Rice, V. J., Vu, T., Butler, J., Marra, D., Merullo, D., & Banderet, L. (2009). Fear of failure: implications for military health care specialist student training. Work, 34(4), 465-474.

Richmond, V. L., Rayson, M. P., Wilkinson, D. M., Carter, J. M., Blacker, S. D., Nevill, A., Moore, S. (2008). Development of an operational fitness test for the Royal Air Force [corrected] [published erratum appears in ERGONOMICS 2008 Sep;51(9):1461]. Ergonomics, 51(6), 935-946.

Riley, D. J., Wingard, D., Morton, D., Nichols, J. F., Ji, M., Shaffer, R., & Macera, C. A. (2005). Use of self-assessed fitness and exercise parameters to predict objective fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37(5), 827-831.

Rintamäki, H., Kyröläinen, H., Santtila, M., Mäntysaari, M., Simonen, R., Torpo, H., Lindholm, H. (2012). From the subarctic to the tropics: effects of 4-month deployment on soldiers' heat stress, heat strain, and physical performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 26, S45-S51.

Ritter, W. S., Stone, M. J., & Willerson, J. T. (1979). Reduction in exertional myoglobinemia after physical conditioning. Archives of internal medicine, 139(6), 644-647.

Rocha, C., Canellas, A., Monteiro, D., Antoniazzi, M., & Azevedo, P. H. (2010). Changes in individual glucose threshold during military training. Int J Sports Med, 31(7), 482-485.

Rosendal, L., Langberg, H., Skov-Jensen, A., & Kjaer, M. (2003). Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training. Clin J Sport Med, 13(3), 157-163.

Ross, M. (2008). Effect of a 15-day pragmatic hamstring stretching program on hamstring flexibility and single hop for distance test performance... 2008 Combined Sections Meeting...Nashville, Tennessee, February 6-9, 2008. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 38(1), A45-A45.

Rossomanno, C. I., Herrick, J. E., Kirk, S. M., & Kirk, E. P. (2012). A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness. J Strength Cond Res, 26(9), 2338-2344.

Rubini, E. C., Costa, A. L., & Gomes, P. S. (2007). The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Med, 37(3), 213-224.

Santana, Â. M. C., Gomes, J. K. V., De Marchi, D., Girondoli, Y. M., de Lima Rosado, L. E. F. P., Rosado, G. P., Soares, M. M. (2012). Ocuppational stress, working condition and nutrional status of military police officers. Work, 41, 2908-2914.

Santtila, M., HÄKkinen, K., Nindl, B. C., & KyrÖLÄInen, H. (2012). Cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance responses induced by 8 weeks of basic training followed by 8 weeks of specialized military training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 26(3), 745-751.

Santtila, M., Kyröläinen, H., Vasankari, T., Tiainen, S., Palvalin, K., Häkkinen, A., & Häkkinen, K. (2006). Physical fitness profiles in young Finnish men during the years 1975-2004. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(11), 1990-1994.

Savage, R. J., Best, S. A., Carstairs, G. L., & Ham, D. J. (2012). The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 26 Suppl 2, S23-S29.

Sekulic, D., Men, B., & Miletic, D. (2006). Navy recruits: fitness measuring, validation, and norming. Mil Med, 171(8), 749-752.

Shaffer, R. A., Rauh, M. J., Brodine, S. K., Trone, D. W., & Macera, C. A. (2006). Predictors of stress fracture susceptibility in young female recruits. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(1), 108-115.

Sharma, J., Golby, J., Greeves, J., & Spears, I. R. (2011). Biomechanical and lifestyle risk factors for medial tibia stress syndrome in army recruits: a prospective study. Gait & posture, 33(3), 361-365.

Sharp, D. S., Andrew, M. E., Burchfiel, C. M., Violanti, J. M., & Wactawski-Wende, J. (2012). Body mass index versus dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived indexes: predictors of cardiovascular and diabetic disease risk factors. American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council, 24(4), 400-405.

Sharp, M. A., Knapik, J. J., Walker, L. A., Burrell, L., Frykman, P. N., Darakjy, S. S., Marin, R. E. (2008). Physical fitness and body composition after a 9-month deployment to Afghanistan. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 40(9), 1687-1692.

Sharp, M. A., Patton, J. F., Knapik, J. J., Hauret, K., Mello, R. P., Ito, M., & Frykman, P. N. (2002). Comparison of the physical fitness of men and women entering the U.S. Army: 1978-1998. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 356-363.

Sheaff, A. K., Bennett, A., Hanson, E. D., Kim, Y.-S., Hsu, J., Shim, J. K., Hurley, B. F. (2010). Physiological Determinants of the Candidate Physical Ability Test in Firefighters. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(11), 3112-3122.

Simpson, R. J., Gray, S. C., & Florida-James, G. D. (2006). Physiological variables and performance markers of serving soldiers from two "elite" units of the British Army. J Sports Sci, 24(6), 597-604.

Sloan, R. A., Sawada, S. S., Martin, C. K., Church, T., & Blair, S. N. (2009). Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 7, 47.

Soldiers fitness after 9-month deployment. (2008). ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 12(5), 2-2.

Sonna, L. A., Sharp, M. A., Knapik, J. J., Cullivan, M., Angel, K. C., Patton, J. F., & Lilly, C. M. (2001). Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and physical performance during US Army basic training. J Appl Physiol, 91(3), 1355-1363.

Southard, T. L., & Pugh, J. W. (2004). Effect of hydration state on heart rate-based estimates of VO2max. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 7(1), 19-25.

Sperlich, B., Fricke, H., de Marees, M., Linville, J. W., & Mester, J. (2009). Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance? Mil Med, 174(9), 977-982.

Spitler, D. L., Jones, G., Hawkins, J., & Dudka, L. (1987). Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers. Br J Sports Med, 21(4), 154-157.

Sporis, G., Harasin, D., Bok, D., Matika, D., & Vuleta, D. (2012). Effects of a training program for special operations battalion on soldiers' fitness characteristics. J Strength Cond Res, 26(10), 2872-2882.

Stanish, H. I., Wood, T. M., & Campagna, P. (1999). Prediction of performance on the RCMP physical ability requirement evaluation. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 41(8), 669-677.

Strating, M., Bakker, R. H., Dijkstra, G. J., Lemmink, K. A., & Groothoff, J. W. (2010). A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police. Occup Med (Lond), 60(4), 255-260.

Szasz, A., Zimmerman, A., Frey, E., Brady, D., & Spalletta, R. (2002). An electromyographical evaluation of the validity of the 2-minute sit-up section of the Army Physical Fitness Test in measuring abdominal strength and endurance. Mil Med, 167(11), 950-953.

Takken, T., Ribbink, A., Heneweer, H., Moolenaar, H., & Wittink, H. (2009). Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols. Ergonomics, 52(2), 245-250.

Talbot, L. A., Weinstein, A. A., & Fleg, J. L. (2009). Army Physical Fitness Test scores predict coronary heart disease risk in Army National Guard soldiers. Mil Med, 174(3), 245-252.

Tanskanen, M., Uusitalo, A. L., Hakkinen, K., Nissila, J., Santtila, M., Westerterp, K. R., & Kyrolainen, H. (2009). Aerobic fitness, energy balance, and body mass index are associated with training load assessed by activity energy expenditure. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 19(6), 871-878.

Taylor, M. K., Markham, A. E., Reis, J. P., Padilla, G. A., Potterat, E. G., Drummond, S. P., & Mujica-Parodi, L. R. (2008). Physical fitness influences stress reactions to extreme military training. Mil Med, 173(8), 738-742.

Teixeira, C. S., & Pereira, E. F. (2010). Physical fitness, age and nutritional status of military personnel. Arq Bras Cardiol, 94(4), 438-443.

Thebault, N., Leger, L. A., & Passelergue, P. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness. J Strength Cond Res, 25(10), 2857-2865.

Thomas, D. Q., Lumpp, S. A., Schreiber, J. A., & Keith, J. A. (2004). Physical fitness profile of Army ROTC cadets. J Strength Cond Res, 18(4), 904-907.

Tomczak, A., Bertrandt, J., & Kłos, A. (2012). Physical fitness and nutritional status of polish ground force unit recruits. Biology of Sport, 29(4), 277-280.

Trank, T. V., Ryman, D. H., Minagawa, R. Y., Trone, D. W., & Shaffer, R. A. (2001). Running mileage, movement mileage, and fitness in male U.S. Navy recruits. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(6), 1033-1038.

Tyyska, J., Kokko, J., Salonen, M., Koivu, M., & Kyrolainen, H. (2010). Association with physical fitness, serum hormones and sleep during a 15-day military field training. J Sci Med Sport, 13(3), 356-359.

Vanderburgh, P. M., & Flanagan, S. (2000). The backpack run test: a model for a fair and occupationally relevant military fitness test. Mil Med, 165(5), 418-421.

Velepec, A. V., Tušak, M., Tušak, M., & Pori, M. (2009). Correlation of motor abilities and aerobic conditioning with personality traits of soldiers in a battle unit of the Slovenian armed forces. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 15(1), 33-42.

von Restorff, W. (2000). Physical fitness of young women: carrying simulated patients. Ergonomics, 43(6), 728-743.

Wallace, R. F., Kriebel, D., Punnett, L., Wegman, D. H., Wenger, C. B., Gardner, J. W., & Kark, J. A. (2006). Risk factors for recruit exertional heat illness by gender and training period. Aviat Space Environ Med, 77(4), 415-421.

Warr, B. J., Alvar, B. A., Dodd, D. J., Heumann, K. J., Mitros, M. R., Keating, C. J., & Swan, P. D. (2011). How do they compare?: an assessment of predeployment fitness in the Arizona National Guard. J Strength Cond Res, 25(11), 2955-2962.

Weiglein, L., Herrick, J., Kirk, S., & Kirk, E. P. (2011). The 1-mile walk test is a valid predictor of VO(2max) and is a reliable alternative fitness test to the 1.5-mile run in U.S. Air Force men. Mil Med, 176(6), 669-673.

Wen-Chyuan Chen, K., Pin-Kun, C., Lin, I. A., Ku Fu, X., Mei-Chich, H., & Tian-Chong Liang, M. (2007). A Study of Basic Military Training on the Physical Fitness and Physical Self-Concept for Cadets. Journal of Physical Education & Recreation (10287418), 13(2), 6-12.

Westcott, W. L., Annesi, J. J., Skaggs, J. M., Gibson, J. R., Reynolds, R. D., & O'Dell, J. P. (2007). Comparison of two exercise protocols on fitness score improvement in poorly conditioned Air Force personnel. Percept Mot Skills, 104(2), 629-636.

Whitehead, P. N., Schilling, B. K., Peterson, D. D., & Weiss, L. W. (2012). Possible new modalities for the Navy physical readiness test. Mil Med, 177(11), 1417-1425.

Wilken, J. M., Darter, B. J., Goffar, S. L., Ellwein, J. C., Snell, R. M., Tomalis, E. A., & Shaffer, S. W. (2012). Physical performance assessment in military service members. J Am Acad Orthop Surg, 20 Suppl 1, S42-47.

Wilson, J. N., Markey, C. N., & Markey, P. M. (2012). Fitness correlates of obligatory versus health motives for exercise: An examination of men in the military. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13(4), 371-377.

Williams, A. G. (2005). Effects of basic training in the British Army on regular and reserve Army personnel. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Allen Press Publishing Services Inc.), 19(2), 254-259.

Williams, A. G., & Evans, P. (2007). Materials handling ability of regular and reserve British Army soldiers. Mil Med, 172(2), 220-223.

Williams, A. G., & Rayson, M. P. (2006a). Can simple anthropometric and physical performance tests track training-induced changes in load-carriage ability? Mil Med, 171(8), 742-748.

Williams, A. G., & Rayson, M. P. (2006b). Can simple anthropometric and physical performance tests track training-induced changes in maximal box-lifting ability? Ergonomics, 49(7), 661-670.

Williams, A. G., Rayson, M. P., & Jones, D. A. (2002). Resistance training and the enhancement of the gains in material-handling ability and physical fitness of British Army recruits during basic training. Ergonomics, 45(4), 267-279.

Williams, M. A., Petratis, M. M., Baechle, T. R., Ryschon, K. L., Campain, J. J., & Sketch, M. H. (1987). Frequency of physical activity, exercise capacity, and atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors in male police officers. J Occup Med, 29(7), 596-600.

Worden, T., & White, E. D., 3rd. (2012). Modifying the U.S. Air Force Fitness Test to reflect physical combat fitness: one study's perspective. Mil Med, 177(9), 1090-1094.

Wyss, T., Von Vigier, R. O., Frey, F., & Mader, U. (2012). The Swiss Army physical fitness test battery predicts risk of overuse injuries among recruits. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 52(5), 513-521.

Yanovich, R., Evans, R., Israeli, E., Constantini, N., Sharvit, N., Merkel, D., Moran, D. S. (2008). Differences in physical fitness of male and female recruits in gender-integrated army basic training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(11), S654-659.

Zagatto, A. M., Beck, W. R., & Gobatto, C. A. (2009). Validity of the running anaerobic sprint test for assessing anaerobic power and predicting short-distance performances. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 23(6), 1820-1827.

Zajdowicz, M. J., & McKenzie, R. T. (2003). Predictors of successful physical readiness testing under the new standard: OPNAV Instruction 6110.1F. Mil Med, 168(5), 394-398






Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)