Determinants of service quality influencing customer satisfaction in fitness centers: A systematic review
Keywords:service quality perception, health-fitness clubs, service loyalty, satisfaction, PRISMA, customer retention
The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the determinants of fitness center service quality that most influence customer satisfaction. Studies were identified from searches in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and EBSCO databases from 2017 through 2022. The search process was carried out by four independent researchers. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to determine whether the studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the reporting of the measures was assessed using a tailored list. The electronic search strategy produced 378 studies. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results of the review support the importance of service quality to improve customer satisfaction, leading to customers future intentions with the brand, increasing loyalty and customer retention. Therefore, positive perceptions of service quality influence customer satisfaction, in turn customer loyalty and retention, and are indispensable for the sustainability of these companies. Through the studies included in this systematic review it was possible to identify nine dimensions of service quality as predictors of customer satisfaction: facility quality, instructors and reception staff quality, price, supporting services, service recovery, service assurance, online marketing, and customer relations. This article provides useful and global information on the most current service quality factors. Given the fitness market's competitiveness, understanding the factors that influence service quality allows managers to better choose their strategies for increasing customer satisfaction.
Afthinos, Y., Theodorakis, N. & Nassis, P. (2005). Customers expectations of service in Greek fitness centers: Gender, age, type of sport center, and motivations differences. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 15(3), 245-258.
Álvarez-García, J., González-Vázquez, E., Del Río-Rama, M. de la C. & Durán-Sánchez, A. (2019). Quality in Customer Service and Its Relationship with Satisfaction: An Innovation and Competitiveness Tool in Sport and Health Centers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20), 3942. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203942
Berry, L. L., Parasuraman, A. & Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–40.
Bodet, G. (2006). Investigating customer satisfaction in a health club context by an application of the tetraclasse model”, European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(2), 149–165.
Calesco, V. & Both, J. (2020). Qualidade dos serviços prestados pelas academias de ginástica. Retos, 39, 18–23. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.77659
Chang, K. & Chelladurai, P. (2003). System-Based Quality Dimensions in Fitness Services: Development of the Scale of Quality. The Service Industries Journal, 23(5), 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060308565624
Dias, C., Ferreira, A., Pereira, A. R. & Fonseca, A. M. (2019). Examining the relationship between perceived service quality, satisfaction, and renewal intention in Portuguese fitness centers. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 28(4), 49–58.
Eskiler, E. & Altunışık, R. (2021). The Moderating Effect of Involvement in the Relationship Between Customer Behavioral Intentions and Its Antecedents. SAGE Open, 11(2) https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211014495
Ferreira Barbosa, H. F., García-Fernandez, J. & Cepeda Carrión, G. (2020). Influência das Tecnologias na Retenção de Sócios em Ginásios: Revisão Sistemática. Movimento, 26, e26070. https://doi.org/10.22456/1982-8918.100316.
Ferreira Barbosa, H., García-Fernández, J., Pedragosa, V. & Cepeda-Carrion, G. (2021). The use of fitness center apps and its relation to customer satisfaction: a UTAUT2 perspective. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, ahead-of-print, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-01-2021-0010
Ferreira Barbosa, H., Loureiro, V. & Alves, A. (2019). Quality and satisfaction in gymnasiums & health clubs. Materiales Para La Historia Del Deporte, 18, 115–121.
Foroughi, B., Iranmanesh, M., Gholipour, H. & Hyun, S. (2019). Examining relationships among process quality, outcome quality, delight, satisfaction and behavioural intentions in fitness centres in Malaysia. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 20. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-08-2018-0078
Freitas, A. L. P. & Lacerda, T. S. (2019). Fitness centers: What are the most important attributes in this sector? International Journal for Quality Research, 13(1) 177–192. https://doi.org/10.24874/IJQR13.01-11
García-Fernández, J., Bernal, A., Velez Colon, L., Pitts, B. & Gálvez-Ruiz, P. (2017). Consumer behaviour and sport services: an examination of fitness centre loyalty. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 18(8) https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2017.10012384
García, J., Gálvez-Ruiz, P., Fernandez, J., Velez Colon, L., Pitts, B. & Bernal, A. (2018). The effects of service convenience and perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty in low-cost fitness centers. Sport Management Review, 21(3), 250–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2017.07.003
Gerson, R. (1999). Members for Life: Proven service and retention strategies for health-fitness and sport clubs. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics.
Grönroos, C. (1984). A Service Quality Model and its Marketing Implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004784
Howat, G., Crilley, G. and McGrath, R. (2008). A focused service quality, benefits, overall satisfaction and loyalty model for public aquatic centres. Managing Leisure, 13(3-4), 139-161. https://doi.org/10.1080/13606710802200829
Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2012). Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Lara-Bocanegra, A., Bohórquez, M.R. and García-Fernández, J. (2021). Innovation from sport's entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship: opportunities from a systematic review. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0212
León-Quismondo, J., García-Unanue, J. & Burillo, P. (2020a). Best Practices for Fitness Center Business Sustainability: A Qualitative Vision. Sustainability, 12(12), 5067. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125067
León-Quismondo, J., Garcia-Unanue, J. & Burillo, P. (2020b). Service Perceptions in Fitness Centers: IPA Approach by Gender and Age. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Vol. 17(8), 2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082844
Li, X. & Petrick, J. F. (2010). Towards an Integrative Model of Loyalty Formation: The Role of Quality and Value. Leisure Sciences, 32(3), 201–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490401003709123
Loureiro, V., Alves, A. & Barbosa, H. (2020). The Price-Quality Relationship in Health Fitness Centers: What is Its Importance and Gains?” In V. Loureiro, A. Alves, N. Loureiro, R. Ruivo, P. Bento, P. Paixão & L. Murta (Eds.), Livro de Resumos do 8o Congresso Internacional de Atividade Física e Desporto. Escola Superior de Educação - Instituto Politécnico de Beja.
Loureiro, V. B., Alves, A. R. & Ferreira Barbosa, H. (2019), Personal interactions or price on Fitness? The key elements to the price-quality relationship. ESHPA - Education, Sport, Health and Physical Activity, 3(2), 248–258. https://doi.org/http://hdl.handle.net/10481/56424
Maksimović, N., Matić, R., Tovilović, S., Popović, S., Maksimović, B. & Opsenica, S. (2017). Quality of services in fitness centres: Importance of physical support and assisting staff. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 39(3), 67–78.
Miranda, Y. d. H. B. d., Filho, M. A. B., Silva, V. H. R., Pedroso, C. A. M. d. Q., & Sarmento, J. P. (2021). Determinantes da satisfação e comportamento positivo de clientes em academias fitness. Motricidade, 17(2).
Ndayisenga, J. & Tomoliyus. (2019). Effect of service quality and rates on satisfaction and loyalty of customer behavior at fitness. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences 7(2), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.13189/saj.2019.070202
Nuviala Nuviala, R., Pérez Ordás, R., Morán Gámez, G. y Falcón Miguel, D. (2021). Incidencia del género y la edad sobre la calidad, satisfacción y valor percibido de los usuarios de actividades deportivas organizadas (Incidence of gender and age on the quality, satisfaction and perceived value of users of organized sports activities). Retos, 42, 37–46. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.83480
Oliver, R. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ortega Martínez, J. I., Lourenço Martins, F. M., González-Víllora, S. & Campos, F. (2021). Study on the perceived quality of fitness users: Based on their characteristics and preferences according to sex and age. Retos, 39, 477–482, https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.80061
Pradeep, S., Vadakepat, V. & Rajasenan, D. (2020). The effect of service quality on customer satisfaction in fitness firms. Management Science Letters, 10, 2011–2020. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.2.011
Rahmatulloh, M. Z. A. & Melinda, T. (2021). Analysis of the Effect of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction on the Repurchase Intention, Word of Mouth and Customer Retention for Party Equipment Rental “Suyono"” in Surabaya. KnE Social Sciences, 5(5), 46–56. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v5i5.8797
Rust, R. T., Zahorik, A. J. & Keiningham, T. L. (1995). Return on Quality (ROQ): Making Service Quality Financially Accountable. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 58–70, https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299505900205
Tsitskari, E., Antoniadis, C., & Costa, G. (2014). Investigating the relationship among service quality, customer satisfaction and psychological commitment in Cyprian fitness centres. Journal of physical education and sport, 14, 514-520. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2014.04079
Vieira, E. R. M. & Ferreira, J. J. M. (2018). Strategic framework of fitness clubs based on quality dimensions: the blue ocean strategy approach. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 29, 1648–1667.
Xu, K. K., Chen, K. K. C., Kim, E., García-Fernández, J., Nauright, J. & Zhang, J. J. (2021). Dimensions of service quality in health-fitness clubs in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010567
Zeithmal, V. A., Bitner, M. J. & Gremler, D. D. (2011). Service Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. New Delhi, Tata: McGraw-Hill.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.