Do athletes know the morphology of their longitudinal plantar arch?
Keywords:Foot, Athlete, Cavus Foot, Flat Foot, Injuries
The foot corresponds to the body segment that allows the exchange of forces between the support surface and the athlete's body; its morphology and function influence the quality of movement and body alignment. Moreover, the foot morphology can be modified according to the different adaptations that different sports cause, such as running, sport combat and team sports. This work aimed to define the knowledge that a sample of athletes has about their Medial Longitudinal Foot Arch (MLA). A sample of 119 athletes, separated into three groups (runners, combat athletes, and team players), were given a self-perception questionnaire of their MLA. Their responses were contrasted with the Arch Index (AI), which is a reliable objective measurement of the MLA. Just 18.5% of the sample were able to identify their MLA, as 67.2% stated they did not know, and 14.3% erred in their self-diagnosis. Combat athletes had the highest percentage who correctly identified their MLA (25%). Association was found between the knowledge demonstrated by athletes and the sport they practiced (X2 = 9.926, df = 4, p = 0.04). The ignorance about MLA by the athletes studied is presented as a problem of which consequences are unknown; this opens future research focused on the study of injuries caused by misalignment of the foot and the need to prescribe sports shoes as orthoses.
Abián, J., Del Coso, J., González, C., & Salinero, J. J. (2012). La biomecánica y la tecnología aplicadas al calzado deportivo. Madrid, Espain: IM&C
Amano, T., Ishitobi, M., Ogura, Y., Inoue, Y., Koga, S., Nishiyasu, T., & Kondo, N. (2016). Effect of stride frequency on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running in distance runners. Journal of Thermal Biology, 61, 61–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.08.005
Benca, E., Listabarth, S., Flock, F. K. J., Pablik, E., Fischer, C., Walzer, S. M., Dorotka, R., Windhager, R., & Ziai, P. (2020). Analysis of Running-Related Injuries: The Vienna Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(2), 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020438
Buldt, A. K., Allan, J. J., Landorf, K. B., & Menz, H. B. (2018). The relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking in adults: A systematic review. Gait and Posture, 62(January), 56–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.02.026
Buldt, A. K., Forghany, S., Landorf, K. B., Levinger, P., Murley, G. S., & Menz, H. B. (2018). Foot posture is associated with plantar pressure during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet. Gait and Posture, 62(October 2017), 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.03.005
Buldt, A. K., Levinger, P., Murley, G. S., Menz, H. B., Nester, C. J., & Landorf, K. B. (2014). Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet. Gait and Posture, 42(1), 42–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.004
Burillo, P., & Pérez González, B. (2016). Análisis del comportamiento de los consumidores ante el factor precio en el mercado de calzado para corredores. Sportk: Revista Euroamericana de Ciencias Del Deporte, 5(1), 163–168.
Cavanagh, P. R., Rodgers, M., & Virginia, W. (1986). Technical Note the Arch Index : a Useful Measure. J Biomech, 20, 547–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(87)90255-7
Choi, J. Y., Woo, S. H., Oh, S. H., & Suh, J. S. (2015). A comparative study of the feet of middle-aged women in Korea and the Maasai tribe. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 8(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-015-0126-1
D’Août, K., Pataky, T. C., De Clercq, D., & Aerts, P. (2009). The effects of habitual footwear use: Foot shape and function in native barefoot walkers. Footwear Science, 1(2), 81–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/19424280903386411
Elftman, H., & Manter, J. (1935). The Evolution of the Human Foot, with Especial Reference to the Joints. Journal of Anatomy, 70(Pt 1), 56–67.
Engebretsen, L., Soligard, T., Steffen, K., Alonso, J. M., Aubry, M., Budgett, R., Dvorak, J., Jegathesan, M., Meeuwisse, W. H., Mountjoy, M., Palmer-Green, D., Vanhegan, I., & Renström, P. A. (2013). Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(7), 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092380
Enoksen, E., Tjelta, A. R., & Tjelta, L. I. (2011). Distribution of training volume and intensity of elite male and female track and marathon runners. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 6(2), 273–293. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-95220.127.116.113
Gijon-Nogueron, G., Gavilan-Diaz, M., Valle-Funes, V., Jimenez-Cebrian, A., Cervera-Marin, J., & Morales-Asencio, J. (2013). Anthropometric Foot Changes During Pregnancy. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 103(4), 314–321.
Goto, A., Moritomo, H., Itohara, T., Watanabe, T., & Sugamoto, K. (2009). Three-dimensional in vivo kinematics of the subtalar joint during Dorsi-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion. Foot and Ankle International, 30(5), 432–438. https://doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2009.0432
Hämäläinen, H., Rönnemaa, T., Toikka, T., & Liukkonen, I. (1998). Long-Term Effects of One Year of Intensified Podiatric Activities on Foot-Care Knowledge and Self-Care Habits in Patients With Diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 24(6), 734–740. https://doi.org/10.1177/014572179802400609
Hohmann, E., Reaburn, P., & Imhoff, A. (2012). Runner’s knowledge of their foot type: Do they really know? Foot, 22(3), 205–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2012.04.008
Jimenez-Ormeño, E., Aguado, X., Delgado-Abellan, L., Mecerreyes, L., & Alegre, L. M. (2011). Changes in footprint with resistance exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(8), 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1275354
Jungmalm, J., Nielsen, R. Ø., Desai, P., Karlsson, J., Hein, T., & Grau, S. (2020). Associations between biomechanical and clinical / anthropometrical factors and running-related injuries among recreational runners : a 52-week prospective cohort study. Injury Epidemiology, 7(10). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-020-00237-2
Khamis, S., & Yizhar, Z. (2007). Effect of feet hyperpronation on pelvic alignment in a standing position. Gait and Posture, 25(1), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.02.005
Kirby, K. A. (1979). Rotational equilibrium across the subtalar joint. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79(1), 1–14.
Krähenbühl, N., Horn-Lang, T., Hintermann, B., & Knupp, M. (2017). The subtalar joint: A complex mechanism. EFORT Open Reviews, 2(7), 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1302/2058-5241.2.160050
Kulthanan, T., Techakampuch, S., & Donphongam, N. (2004). A study of footprints in athletes and non-athletic people. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 87(7), 788–793.
López Elvira, J. L., Vera-García, F. J., Meana, M., & García, J. A. (2008). Biomechanical analysis of the support in race walking: relationship between footprint, subtalar joint angles, and plantar pressures. European Journal of Human Movement, 20, 41–60.
Mann, R., & Hagy, J. (1980). Biomechanics of Running, Walking and Sprinting. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 8(5), 345–350.
Manter, J. (1941). Movements of the subtalar and transverse tarsal joint. The Anatomical Records, 80(4).
Matveev, L. (2001). Teoría General del Entrenamiento Deportivo. Barcelona, Spain: Paidotribo.
Messier, S. P., Martin, D. F., Mihalko, S. L., Ip, E., DeVita, P., Cannon, D. W., Love, M., Beringer, D., Saldana, S., Fellin, R. E., & Seay, J. F. (2018). A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Overuse Running Injuries: The Runners and Injury Longitudinal Study (TRAILS). American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(9), 2211–2221. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546518773755
Pontzer, H., Holloway, J. H., Raichlen, D. a, & Lieberman, D. E. (2009). Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 212(Pt 4), 523–534. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.030478
Ribeiro, A., Trombini-Souza, F., Iunes, D., & Monte-Raso, V. (2006). Confiabilidade inter e intra-examinador da fotopodometria e intra-examinador da fotopodoscopia. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 10(4), 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552006000400012
Richards, C. E., Magin, P. J., & Callister, R. (2009). Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence-based? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(3), 159–162. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.046680
Sánchez-Ramírez, C, Alarcón, E., & Morales, H. (2017). Características Morfofuncionales del Pie de Deportistas Universitarios Chilenos en Diez Disciplinas Deportivas. International Journal of Morphology, 35(4), 1403–1408.
Sánchez-Ramírez, Celso. (2017). Caracterización Morfológica del Arco Plantar Longitudinal Medial del Pie en una Población Chilena. International Journal of Morphology, 35(1), 85–91. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022017000100015
Sichting, F., Holowka, N. B., Ebrecht, F., & Lieberman, D. E. (2020). Evolutionary anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis in primates, including humans. Journal of Anatomy, 237(1), 85–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13173
Sun, X., Lam, W. K., Zhang, X., Wang, J., & Fu, W. (2020). Systematic review of the role of footwear constructions in running biomechanics: Implications for running-related injury and performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 19(1), 20–37.
Susman, R. L. (1983). Evolution of the Human Foot: Evidence from Plio-Pleistocene Hominids. Foot & Ankle, 3(6), 365–376. https://doi.org/10.1177/107110078300300605
Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2014). Gender and age-related differences in foot morphology. Maturitas, 79(4), 421–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.07.019
Tong, J. W. K., & Kong, P. W. (2013). Association between foot type and lower extremity injuries: Systematic literature review with meta-analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 43(10), 700–714. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4225
Wager, J. C., & Challis, J. H. (2016). Elastic energy within the human plantar aponeurosis contributes to arch shortening during the push-off phase of running. Journal of Biomechanics, 49(5), 704–709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.02.023
Wilk, B. R., Fisher, K. L., & Gutierrez, W. (2000). Defective running shoes as a contributing factor in plantar fasciitis in a triathlete. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2000.30.1.21
Xiong, S., Goonetilleke, R. S., Witana, C. P., Weerasinghe, T. W., & Au, E. Y. L. (2010). Foot arch characterization: a review, a new metric, and a comparison. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 100(1), 14–24. https://doi.org/100/1/14
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.