Assessing adolescents’ appraisal of significant adults’ goal-involving criteria for judging their success in physical education and sport settings: a missing link in the socialization process


  • Carmen Peiró-Velert
  • Amparo Escartí
  • Carmen Trigueros


This study examined psychometric properties of a measure of adolescents' appraisal of criteria used for judging their sport and physical education success by their significant adults (PACEDOS). To facilitate coherent comparisons among significant adults in achievement settings, the same measure was used for the four of them (mother, father, and coach or PE teacher). Participants were 505 Spanish adolescents (M=13.85 years of age, SD = .76). Support for two dimensions, namely a task-involving criteria and ego-involving criteria, emerged across the four administrations via CFA, as well as evidence for internal consistency. Predictive validity findings suggested that the PACEDOS was distinct from perceptions of the motivational climate. Results revealed differences in gender, between athletes/non-athletes, and among the adolescents’ appraisals of the four social agents’ ego and task-involving criteria. Particularly, parents played a gendered role and sport leaders (coach/PE teacher) played a performative/educational role in adolescents’ appraisal of the criteria used for judging their success in sport and PE contexts. The PACEDOS appeared to be a valid and reliable instrument, which allows coherent comparisons among different significant adults and it may help for understanding adolescents’ sport and PE socialization.


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