Effects of a postural education program on backpack use habits in schoolchildren: The PEPE Study.


  • Josep Vidal-Conti Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Research Group (GICAFE). Institute for Educational Research and Innovation (IRIE). University of the Balearic Islands
  • Aina Galmés-Panadés Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Research Group (GICAFE). Institute for Educational Research and Innovation (IRIE). University of the Balearic Islands
  • Adrià Muntaner-Mas Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Research Group (GICAFE). Institute for Educational Research and Innovation (IRIE). University of the Balearic Islands
  • Pere Palou Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Research Group (GICAFE). Institute for Educational Research and Innovation (IRIE). University of the Balearic Islands
  • Pere Borràs Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Research Group (GICAFE). Institute for Educational Research and Innovation (IRIE). University of the Balearic Islands




school bags, backpack, low back pain, postural education, health promotion


One of the concerns of educational and health authorities, parents, and professionals from different sectors is the incorrect use of the school backpack and its repercussions on the musculoskeletal system, especially on the back. Health Literacy education programs have been carried out in the primary and secondary education system with the aim of preventing musculoskeletal disorders in children and adolescents and initiatives are being taken to reduce the weight that students carry in their backpacks. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of a postural education program on backpack use habits related to LBP in schoolchildren aged 10-12 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out in Majorca (Spain), with 224 primary schoolchildren aged 10 to 12. The sample was selected from different clusters (schools) using convenience sampling and randomly distributed into an experimental group (5 schools) or a control group (5 schools). A 16-week intervention program was implemented, which was carried out telematically because it was in times of COVID-19. Three structured and self-administered questionnaires were used to examine the prevalence of low back pain and backpack use habits. Results showed how backpack habits and single questions related to the use of backpack did not improve after the intervention in the experimental group, and in the control group also. The main conclusion is that no improvements were observed in the intervention group attributable to the effect of the intervention.


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