Physical Activity level in doctors during Covid-19: An Online-based Cross-sectional study
Keywords:Physical activity;, Exercise;, Physicians;, Covid-19;, Pandemics;, SARS-CoV-2
Physical activity is an important therapeutic strategy in reducing the severity of Covid-19 disease. There is a lack of studies evaluating the level of physical activity among doctors who are the frontline responders of Covid-19 pandemic. The online survey aimed at evaluating the effect factors associated with physical activity levels of doctors during Covid-19 pandemic using International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ- SF). The survey included doctors from government and private health sectors of India. Snowballing technique was used to conduct the survey. About 266 Indian doctors with a median age of 36 (IQR = 31, 46) years responded to the anonymous survey consisting of demographic details and IPAQ- SF. Median MET-minutes/week and Inter Quartile Range (IQR) were used to describe the physical activity levels of the doctors. All the data analysis was done in STATA 12.1. The total median MET-duration of doctors was 834 (IQR = 495, 1620) MET-minutes/week with 988 (IQR = 564.3, 2067.9) Kcal/week of total energy expenditure. Low, moderate and high physical activity levels of doctors were 21.4%, 54.5% and 24.1% respectively. Age, gender, doing Covid-19 duties and regular involvement in physical activity before the pandemic have significantly affected PA levels. More than 55% of doctors who reported high or moderate physical activity before the pandemic were doing significantly low physical activity during the pandemic (p < 0.0001). The Covid-19 pandemic has significantly affected the physical activity level in doctors. Doctors aged 31- 40 years performing Covid-19 duties during the conduct of the survey were likely to perform low physical activity. However, those doctors who regularly engaged in physical activity before the pandemic despite the restrictions were found to engage significantly in higher total MET-duration and expended higher energy.
Ács, P., Veress, R., Rocha, P., Dóczi, T., Raposa, B. L., Baumann, P., … Makai, A. (2021). Criterion validity and reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Hungarian short form against the RM42 accelerometer. BMC Public Health, 21(Suppl 1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10372-0
Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., … Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 1451–1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955
Caputo, E. L., & Reichert, F. F. (2020). Studies of Physical Activity and COVID-19 During the Pandemic: A Scoping Review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(12), 1275–1284. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0406
Cleland, C., Ferguson, S., Ellis, G., & Hunter, R. F. (2018). Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour of older adults in the United Kingdom. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0642-3
Coyle, C., Ghazi, H., & Georgiou, I. (2020). The mental health and well-being benefits of exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study of medical students and newly qualified doctors in the UK. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02423-z
Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E., … Oja, P. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-Country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 1381–1395. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB
Datta, R., Yadav, A. K., Singh, A., Datta, K., & Bansal, A. (2020). The infodemics of COVID-19 amongst healthcare professionals in India. Medical Journal, Armed Forces India, 76(3), 276–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2020.05.009
Fie, S., Norman, I. J., & While, A. E. (2013). The relationship between physicians’ and nurses’ personal physical activity habits and their health-promotion practice: A systematic review. Health Education Journal, 72(1), 102–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896911430763
Filgueira, T. O., Castoldi, A., Santos, L. E. R., de Amorim, G. J., de Sousa Fernandes, M. S., Anastácio, W. de L. do N., … Souto, F. O. (2021). The Relevance of a Physical Active Lifestyle and Physical Fitness on Immune Defense: Mitigating Disease Burden, With Focus on COVID-19 Consequences. Frontiers in Immunology, 12(February), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.587146
Gleeson, M. (2007). Immune function in sport and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(2), 693–699. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00008.2007
He, X., Hong, W., Pan, X., Lu, G., & Wei, X. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: Characteristics and prevention. MedComm, 2(4), 838–845. https://doi.org/10.1002/mco2.110
IPAQ scoring protocol—International Physical Activity Questionnaire. (2021). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/scoring-protocol
Jeong, S.-W., Kim, S.-H., Kang, S.-H., Kim, H.-J., Yoon, C.-H., Youn, T.-J., & Chae, I.-H. (2019). Mortality reduction with physical activity in patients with and without cardiovascular disease. European Heart Journal, 40(43), 3547–3555. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz564
Jetté, M., Sidney, K., & Blümchen, G. (1990). Metabolic equivalents (METS) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. Clinical Cardiology, 13(8), 555–565. https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.4960130809
Jones, A. W., & Davison, G. (2019). Exercise, immunity, and illness. In Muscle and Exercise Physiology (pp. 317–344). Elsevier.
Kasapis, C., & Thompson, P. D. (2005). The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: A systematic review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45(10), 1563–1569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.12.077
Kokkinos, P. (2012). Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk. ISRN Cardiology, 2012, 718789. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/718789
Lauer, E. E., Jackson, A. W., Martin, S. B., & Morrow, J. R. (2017). Meeting USDHHS Physical Activity Guidelines and Health Outcomes. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(1), 121–127.
Lee, I. M., & Skerrett, P. J. (2001). Physical activity and all-cause mortality: What is the dose-response relation? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6 Suppl), S459-471; discussion S493-494. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00016
Leitzmann, M. F., Park, Y., Blair, A., Ballard-Barbash, R., Mouw, T., Hollenbeck, A. R., & Schatzkin, A. (2007). Physical Activity Recommendations and Decreased Risk of Mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(22), 2453–2460. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.22.2453
Lwanga, S. K., Lemeshow, S., & Organization, W. H. (1991). Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual. World Health Organization.
Macek, P., Terek-Derszniak, M., Zak, M., Biskup, M., Ciepiela, P., Krol, H., … Gozdz, S. (2019). WHO recommendations on physical activity versus compliance rate within a specific urban population as assessed through IPAQ survey: A cross-sectional cohort study. BMJ Open, 9(6), e028334. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028334
Mallah, S. I., Ghorab, O. K., Al-Salmi, S., Abdellatif, O. S., Tharmaratnam, T., Iskandar, M. A., … Al-Qahtani, M. (2021). COVID-19: Breaking down a global health crisis. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 20(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12941-021-00438-7
Medina, C., Jáuregui, A., Hernández, C., Shamah, T., & Barquera, S. (2021). Physical inactivity and sitting time prevalence and trends in Mexican adults. Results from three national surveys. PLOS ONE, 16(7), e0253137. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253137
Romeo, J., Wärnberg, J., Pozo, T., & Marcos, A. (2010). Physical activity, immunity and infection. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 69(3), 390–399. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665110001795
Sallis, R., Young, D. R., Tartof, S. Y., Sallis, J. F., Sall, J., Li, Q., … Cohen, D. A. (2021). Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: A study in 48 440 adult patients. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 55(19), 1099–1105. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080
Shimizu, K., Kimura, F., Akimoto, T., Akama, T., Tanabe, K., Nishijima, T., … Kono, I. (2008). Effect of moderate exercise training on T-helper cell subpopulations in elderly people. Exercise Immunology Review, 14, 24–37.
Srivastav, A. K., Sharma, N., & Samuel, A. J. (2021). Impact of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) lockdown on physical activity and energy expenditure among physiotherapy professionals and students using web-based open E-survey sent through WhatsApp, Facebook and Instagram messengers: Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity and energy expenditure. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 9(July), 78–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2020.07.003
Trost, S. G., Pate, R. R., Sallis, J. F., Freedson, P. S., Taylor, W. C., Dowda, M., & Sirard, J. (2002). Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(2), 350–355. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00025
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.