One Week of Low or Moderate Doses of Caffeinated Coffee Consumption Does Not Induce Tolerance to The Accute Effects of Caffeine on Sprint Performance
Keywords:habituation, coffee, sprint, ergogenic aid, high intensity, supplements
Habituation to acute performance responses of caffeine intake is still an ongoing debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and 1 week consumption of caffeinated coffee on intermittent sprint cycling performance (12x4s with 90s active recovery) (ISP). Twenty four male team-sport players randomly divided into 3 groups (8 athletes for each): 0.16 gr/kg decaffeinated coffee ingestion in a day for 1 week (PLAGROUP), 0.08 caffeinated + 0.08 decaffeinated coffee (providing 3 mg/kg caffeine) (0.16 gr/kg in total) (LOWGROUP) and 0.16 gr/kg caffeinated coffee (providing 6 mg/kg caffeine) (MODGROUP). Participants underwent three test session: At the first two test sessions, ISP test was performed with acute ingestion of decaffeinated coffee (PLA) or 6 mg/kg of caffeine provided by coffee (FIRSTCAF) to test acute effects of caffeine intake. At the third test session, following to 1 week of coffee consumption, to test if tolerance develops, ISP was performed with ingestion 6 mg/kg of caffeine provided by coffee (SECONDCAF). A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that although average peak (p=0,39; η2 =0,13) and average mean (p=0,11; η2 =0,15) power of total 12 sprints during ISP test were not statistically different between 1 week consumption groups, FIRSTCAF and SECONDCAF significantly increased peak power (p=0,01; η2 =0,44) and mean power (p=0,01; η2 =0,46) in the first three sprints compared to PLA in all consumption groups. It appears that no tolerance was developed in 1 week consumption of 3 or 6 mg/kg/day of caffeine provided by coffee.
Aguilar-Navarro, M., Munoz, G., Salinero, J.J., Munoz-Guerra, J., Fernandez-Alvarez, M., Plata, M.D.M., Del Coso, J. (2019). Urine caffeine concentration in doping control samples from 2004 to 2015. Nutrients, 11(2), 286.
Anderson, D.E., German, R.E., Harrison, M.E., Bourassa, K.N., Taylor, C.E. (2020). Real and perceived effects of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34, 929-933.
Beaumont, R., Cordery, P., Funnell, M., Mears, S., James, L., Watson, P. (2017). Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(19), 1920-1927.
Bell, D.G., McLellan, T.M. (2002). Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(4), 1227-1234.
Bühler, E., Lachenmeier, L.W., Schlegel, K., Winkler, G. (2014). Development of a tool to assess the caffeine intake among teenagers and young adults. Ernahrungs Umschau, 61(4), 58-63.
Clarke, N., Baxter, H., Fajemilua, E., Jones, V., Oxford, S., Richardson, D., Wyatt, C., Mundy, P. (2016). Coffee and caffeine ingestion have little effect on repeated sprint cycling in relatively untrained males. Sports, 4(3), 45.
Clarke, N.D., Richardson D.L., Thie, J., Taylor, R. (2018). Coffee ingestion enhances 1-mile running race performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(6), 789-794.
Clarke, N.D., Kirwan, N.A., Richardson, D.L. (2019). Coffee ingestion improves 5 km cycling performance in men and women by a similar magnitude. Nutrients, 11(11), 2575.
Cohen, J.A. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.
Davis, J.K., Green, J.M. (2009). Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Medicine, 39(10), 813-832.
Del Coso, J., Salinero, J.J., & Lara, B. (2020). Effects of caffeine and coffee on human functioning. Nutrients, 12(1), 125.
Desbrow, B., Leveritt, M. (2006). Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championship. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16(5), 545-558.
Doherty, M., Smith, P., Hughes, M., Davison, R. (2004). Caffeine lowers perceptual response and increases power output during high-intensity cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 637-643.
Dominguez, R., Veiga-Herreros, P., Sanchez-Oliver, A.J., Montoya, J.J., Ramos-Alvarez, J.J., Miguel-Tobal, F., Lago-Rodriguez, A., Jodra P. (2021). Acute effects of caffeine intake on psychological responses and high-intensity exercise performance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2), 584.
Filip, A., Wilk, M., Krzysztofik, M., Del Coso, J. (2020). Inconsistency in the ergogenic effect of caffeine in athletes who regularly consume caffeine: is it due to the disparity in the criteria that defines habitual caffeine intake?. Nutrients, 12(4), 1087.
Filip-Stachnik, A., Wilk, M., Krzystofik, M., Lulinska, E., Tufano, J.J., Zajac, A., Stasny, P., Del Coso, J. (2021). The effects of different doses of caffeine on maximal strength and strength-endurance in women habituated to caffeine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18, 25.
Girard, O., Mendez-Vilanueva, A., & Bishop, D. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability – part I. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 673-694.
Glaister, M., Towey, C., Jeffries, O., Muniz-Pumares, D., Foley, P., McInnes, G. (2019). Caffeine and sprint cycling performance: effects of torque factor and sprint duration. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(4), 426-431.
Glaister, M., Gissane, C. (2018). Caffeine and physiological responses to submaximal exercise: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(4), 402-411.
Glaister, M., Patterson, S.D., Foley, P., Pedlar, C.R., Pattison, J.R., McInnes, G. (2012). Caffeine and sprinting performance: dose responses and efficacy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 1001-1005.
Gonçalves, L.S., Painelli, V.S., Yamaguchi, G., Oliveira, L.F., Saunders, B., Silva, R.P., Maciel, E., Artioli, G.G., Roschel, H., Bruno, Gualano, R. (2017). Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 123(1), 213-220.
Graham, T.E., Hibbert, E., Sathasivam, P. (1998). Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(3), 883-889.
Grgic, J., Sabol, F., Venier, S., Mikulic, I.,Bratkovic, N., Schoenfeld, B.J., Pickering, C., Bishop, D.J., Pedisic, Z., Mikulic, P. (2020). What doses of caffeine to use: acute effects of 3 doses of caffeine on muscle endurance and strength. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9, 1-8.
Grgic, J. (2018). Caffeine ingestion enhances wingate performance: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Sport Science, 18, 219-225.
Hodgson, A.B., Randell, R.K., Jeukendrup, A.E. (2013). The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. Plos One, 8(4): e59561.
Irwin, C., Desbrow, B., Ellis, A., O’Keeffe, B., Grant, G., Leveritt, M. (2011). Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 509-515.
Karayigit, R., Yildiz, H., Sahin, M.A., Sisman, A., Sari, C., Buyukcelebi, H., Ersoz, G. (2021). The effects of low-dose caffeinated coffee ingestion on strength and muscular endurance performance in male athletes. Progress in Nutrition, 23(1), e2021001.
Karayigit, R., Naderi, A., Akca, F., Gomes da Cruz, C.J., Sarshin, A., Yasli B.C., Ersoz, G., Kaviani, M. (2020). Effects of different doses of caffeinated coffee on muscular endurance, cognitive performance and autonomic modulation in caffeine naïve female athletes. Nutrients, 13(1), 2.
Lara, B., Ruiz-Moreno, C., Salinero, J.J., Del Coso, J. (2019). Time course of tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine. Plos One, 14, e0210275.
Lee, C.-L., Cheng, C.-F., Lin, J.-C., Huang, H,-W. (2012). Caffeine’s effect on intermittent sprint cycling performance with different rest intervals. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 2017-2116.
Marques, A.C., Jesus, A.A., Giglio, B.M., Marini, A.C., Lobo, P.C.B., Mota, J.F., Pimentel, G.D. (2018). Acute caffeinated coffee consumption does not improve time trial performance in an 800-m run: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients, 23(10), 657.
McLellan, T.M., Bell, D.G. (2004). The impact of prior coffee consumption on the subsequent ergogenic effect of anhydrous caffeine. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14(6), 698-708.
Mohr, M., Nielsen, J.J., Bangsbo, J. (2011). Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 111(5), 1372-1379.
Morales, A.O., Sampaio-Jorge, F., Barth, T., Pierucci, A.P.T.R., Riberio, B.G. (2020). Caffeine supplementation for 4 days does not induce tolerance to the ergogenic effects promoted by acute intake on physiological, metabolic, and performance parameters of cyclists: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients, 12, 2101.
Pallares, J.G., Fernandez-Elisa, V.E., Ortega, J.F., Munoz, G., Munoz-Guerra, J., Mora-Rodriguez, R. (2013). Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side effects. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 45(11), 2184-2192.
Pickering, C., Kiely, J. (2019). What should we do about habitual caffeine use in athletes?. Sports Medicine, 49(6), 833-842.
Richardson, D.L., Clarke, N.D. (2016). Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(10), 2892-2900.
Ruiz-Moreno, C., Lara, B., Gutierrez-Hellin, J., Gonzales-Garcia, J., Del Coso, J. (2020). Time course and magnitude of tolerance to the ergogenic effect of caffeine on the second ventilatory threshold. Life, 10, 343.
Schneiker, K., Bishop, D., Dawson, B., Hackett, L. (2006). Effects of caffeine on prolonged intermittent sprint ability in team-sport athletes. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 38(3), 578-585.
Shabir, A., Hooton, A., Tallis, J., Higgins, M.F. (2018). The influence of caffeine expectancies on sport, exercise, and cognitive performance. Nutrients, 10(10), 1528.
Southward, K., Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J., Ali, A. (2018). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(8), 1913-1928.
Tarnapolsky, M., Cupido, C. (2000). Caffeine potentiates low frequency skeletal muscle force in habitual and nonhabitual caffeine consumers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(5), 1719-1724.
Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Roelofs, E.J., Hirsch, K.R., Mock, M.G. (2016). Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous on strength and sprint performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 16(6), 702-710.
Turley, K., Eusse, P.A., Thomas, M.M., Townsend, J.R., Morton, A.B. (2015). Effects of different doses of caffeine on anaerobic exercise in boys. Pediatric Exercise Science, 27, 50-56.
Wang, C., Zhu, Y., Dong, C., Zhou, Z., Zheng, X. (2020). Effects of various doses of caffeine ingestion on intermittent exercise performance and cognition. Brain Sciences, 10, 595.
Warren, G.L., Park, N.D., Mresca, R.S., McKibans, K.I., Millard-Stafford, M.L. (2010). Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42, 1375-1387.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.