Positive feedback praising good performance does not alter the learning of an intrinsically motivating task in 10-year-old children

Authors

  • Ricardo Drews
  • Go Tani
  • Priscila Cardozo
  • Suzete Chiviacowsky Universidade Federal de Pelotas

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21134/eurjhm.2020.45.5

Keywords:

motor learning, intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, competence, expectancies, infancy, balance

Abstract

Several studies have provided evidence for the importance of motivation in motor learning. The present study investigates whether providing positive feedback as statements praising good performance would benefit children’s motor learning when compared to a no-praise condition. Thirty 10-year-old children divided into two groups—positive feedback (PF) and control—learned to ride a pedalo over a seven-meter distance in the shortest time possible. Participants performed 20 practice trials and received feedback on their movement time following each trial. However, only the PF group received feedback acknowledging good performance after each trial block. After 24 hours, both groups performed learning tests without any feedback. Questionnaires (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory) were applied to measure participants’ motivational levels. The results show substantial improvements in performance during practice and high levels of intrinsic motivation, sustained across days, in both groups. Differences between groups in motivation, performance, and learning were not found. These results demonstrate that riding a pedalo in the shortest time possible constitutes an intrinsically motivating task in children, whose learning is not altered by the provision of positive feedback statements acknowledging good performance, possibly by a motivational ceiling effect. The findings indicate that task-inherent motivational characteristics can moderate positive feedback learning effects in children. Future studies could measure other motivational constructs, such as learner’s persistence in practicing the task, or could include post-failure measures that may reveal differences in children’s capacity to cope with errors. Differences between groups would demonstrate potential benefits of providing positive feedback praising performance in children that were not captured in the present experiment, even on the learning of inherently motivating tasks.

References

Abbas, Z. A., & North, J. S. (2018). Good-vs. poor-trial feedback in motor learning: The role of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation across levels of task difficulty. Learning and Instruction, 55, 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.09.009

Abdollahipour, R., Nieto, M. P., Psotta, R., & Wulf, G. (2017). External focus of attention and autonomy support have additive benefits for motor performance in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 17-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.05.004

Ávila, L. T., Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Positive social-comparative feedback enhances motor learning in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 849-853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.07.001

Bahmani, M., Wulf, G., Ghadiri, F., Karimi, S., & Lewthwaite, R. (2017). Enhancing performance expectancies through visual illusions facilitates motor learning in children. Human Movement Science, 55, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.07.001

Chiviacowsky, S. (2014). Self-controlled practice: Autonomy protects perceptions of competence and enhances motor learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 505-510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.05.003

Chiviacowsky, S. (2020). The motivational role of feedback in motor learning: evidence, interpretations, and implications. In: M. Bertollo, E. Filho, & P. C. Terry (Eds.). Advancements in Mental Skills Training. (London: Routledge), 44–56. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429025112

Chiviacowsky, S., & Drews, R. (2014). Effects of generic versus non-generic feedback on motor learning in children. PloS One, 9(2), e88989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088989.

Chiviacowsky, S., & Drews, R. (2016). Temporal-comparative feedback affects motor learning. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 4, 208-218. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2015-0034

Chiviacowsky, S., & Harter, N. M. (2015). Perceptions of competence and motor learning: performance criterion resulting in low success experience degrades learning. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior, 9. https://doi.org/10.20338/bjmb.v9i1.82

Chiviacowsky, S., Harter, N., Del Vecchio, F., & Abdollahipour, R. (2019). Relatedness affects eye blink rate and movement form learning. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 859-866. http://dx.doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2019.s3124

Chiviacowsky, S., Harter, N. M., Gonçalves, G. S., & Cardozo, P. L. (2018). Temporal-comparative feedback facilitates golf putting. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2691. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02691

Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., de Medeiros, F. L., Kaefer, A., & Tani, G. (2008). Learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results in 10-year-old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 405-410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2008.10599505

Cimpian, A., Arce, H. M. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle linguistic cues affect children’s motivation. Psychological Science, 18, 314–316. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01896.x

Clark, S. E., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2007). The impact of self-as-a-model interventions on children's self-regulation of learning and swimming performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(5), 577-586. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600947090

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010) Intrinsic Motivation, The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0467

Drews, R., Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2013). Children’s motor skill learning is influenced by their conceptions of ability. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 1, 38-44. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.1.2.38

Flôres, F. S., Schild, J. G., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2015). Benefits of external focus instructions on the learning of a balance task in children of different ages. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 46, 311-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.7352/IJSP.2015.46.311

Gonçalves, G. S., Cardozo, P. L., Valentini, N. C., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2018). Enhancing performance expectancies through positive comparative feedback facilitates the learning of basketball free throw in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 36, 174-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.03.001

Gonzalez, D. H., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2018). Relatedness support enhances motor learning. Psychological Research, 82, 439-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-016-0833-7

González-Cutre, D., Romero-Elías, M., Jiménez-Loaisa, A., Beltrán-Carrillo, V. J., & Hagger, M. S. (2020). Testing the need for novelty as a candidate need in basic psychological needs theory. Motivation and Emotion, 44, 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019- 09812-7

González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, A., Sierra, A. C., Ferriz, R., & Hagger, M. S. (2016). Understanding the need for novelty from the perspective of self-determination theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 159-169. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.036

Harter, N. M., Cardozo, P. L., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2019). Conceptions of ability influence the learning of a dance pirouette in children. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 23, 167-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.12678/1089-313X.23.4.167

Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M. R. (2002). The effects of praise on children's intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 774-795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.774

Iwatsuki, T., Shih, H. T., Abdollahipour, R., & Wulf, G. (2019). More bang for the buck: autonomy support increases muscular efficiency. Psychological Research, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/0.1007/s00426-019-01243-w

Jaitner, D., & Mess, F. (2019). Participation can make a difference to be competitive in sports: A systematic review on the relation between complex motor development and self-controlled learning settings. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 14, 255-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954118825063

Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35, 835-847. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.35.3.835

Katz, I., Assor, A., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Bereby-Meyer, Y. (2006). Interest as a motivational resource: Feedback and gender matter, but interest makes the difference. Social Psychology of Education, 9, 27-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-005-2863-7

Lemos, A., Wulf, G., Lewthwaite, R., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2017). Autonomy support enhances performance expectancies, positive affect, and motor learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 31, 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.009

Lessa, H. T., Tani, G., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2018). Benefits of enhanced expectancies through temporal-comparative feedback for motor learning in older adults. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 49, 521-530. http://dx.doi.org/10.7352/IJSP.2018.49.521

Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2012). “Motor learning through a motivational lens. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Eds.). Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory & Practice. (London: Routledge), 173–191. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203133712

McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 48-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413

McAuley, E., Wraith, S., & Duncan, T. E. (1991). Self‐Efficacy, Perceptions of Success, and Intrinsic Motivation for Exercise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 139-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00493.x

Palmer, K., Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2016). Enhanced expectancies facilitate golf putting. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 229-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.009

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.68.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 101860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860

Saemi, E., Wulf, G., Varzaneh, A. G., & Zarghami, M. (2011). Feedback after good versus poor trials enhances motor learning in children. Brazilian Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 25, 673-681.

Sanli, E. A., Patterson, J. T., Bray, S. R., & Lee, T. D. (2013). Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self-determination theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 611. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00611

Schmidt, R. A., Lee, T. D., Winstein, C. J., Wulf, G., & Zelaznik, H. N. (2019). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (6th edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ste-Marie, D. M., Vertes, K. A., Law, B., & Rymal, A. M. (2013). Learner-controlled self-observation is advantageous for motor skill acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 556. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00556

Trempe, M., Sabourin, M., & Proteau, L. (2012). Success modulates consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024883

Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Soenens, B. (2020). Basic psychological need theory: Advancements, critical themes, and future directions. Motivation and Emotion, 44, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09818-1

Whitehead, J. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1991). Effects of Fitness Test Type, Teacher, and Gender on Exercise Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Self Worth. Journal of School Health, 61, 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1991.tb07850.x

Wise, R. A. (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 483-494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn1406.

Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 1382-1414. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9

Ziv, G., Lidor, R., & Lavie, M. (2019). Enhanced expectancies in golf putting–a replication study with increased ecological validity. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2019.1637362

Downloads

Published

2020-12-31

Issue

Section

European Journal of Human Movement