Aerobic and resistance exercises in Parkinson's disease: a narrative review


  • Miguel Fernández-del-Olmo Spanish Sport Science Association
  • Jose Andrés Sanchez-Molina
  • Luis Morenilla Burló
  • Joaquín Gómez-Varela
  • Helena Fernández-Lago
  • Olalla Bello
  • Diego Santos-García


Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Although dopaminergic therapies ameliorate many of the parkinsonian symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease, as the disease progresses, efficacy of pharmacological therapy is diminished. Therefore, treatment of these symptoms continues to be a challenge. As a result, a significant number of rehabilitation strategies have been explored in order to improve the functional capability in this population. In the last two decades an interest in the role of physical exercise in the treatment of PD has emerged. In the current review we examine two modalities of exercise that have shown beneficial effects in improving motor action, balance, and gait in patients: aerobic training and resistance training. We conclude that although there are promising results suggesting the use of both modalities of exercises for the motor improvement in PD patients, the mechanism underlying these improvements are unknown and more studies with more defined designs and outcome measures are needed to further explore the impact of these two modalities of exercise on PD.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


A’Campo, L. E. I., Wekking, E. M., Spliethoff-Kamminga, N. G. A., Stijnen, T., & Roos, R. A. C. (2012). Treatment effect modifiers for the patient education programme for Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 66(1), 77-83.

Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E. B., Andersen, J. L., Magnusson, P., & Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (2002). Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 93(4), 1318–1326.

Ahlskog, J. E. (2018). Aerobic Exercise: Evidence for a Direct Brain Effect to Slow Parkinson Disease Progression. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 93(3), 360–372.

Albin, R. L., Young, A. B., & Penney, J. B. (1989). The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends in Neurosciences, 12(10), 366-375.

Alexander, G. E., DeLong, M. R., & Strick, P. L. (1986). Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 9, 357–381.

Ambrus, M., Sanchez, J. A., & Fernandez-Del-Olmo, M. (2018). Walking on a treadmill improves the stride length-cadence relationship in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Gait & Posture, 68, 136–140.

Angelucci, F., Piermaria, J., Gelfo, F., Shofany, J., Tramontano, M., Fiore, M., … & Peppe, A. (2016). The effects of motor rehabilitation training on clinical symptoms and serum BDNF levels in Parkinson’s disease subjects. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 94(4), 455-461.

Bega, D., Gonzalez-Latapi, P., Zadikoff, C., & Simuni, T. (2014). A Review of the Clinical Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 16(10), 314.

Bello, O., Sanchez, J. A., Lopez-Alonso, V., Márquez, G., Morenilla, L., Castro, X., … & Fernandez-del-Olmo, M. (2013). The effects of treadmill or overground walking training program on gait in Parkinson’s disease. Gait and Posture, 38(4).

Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J. C., Thompson, P. D., & Hallett, M. (2001). Pathophysiology of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease. Brain : A Journal of Neurology, 124(11), 2131–2146.

Bloem, B. R., Hausdorff, J. M., Visser, J. E., & Giladi, N. (2004). Falls and freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: a review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 19(8), 871–884.

Bloem, B. R., Marinus, J., Almeida, Q., Dibble, L., Nieuwboer, A., Post, B., … & Movement Disorders Society Rating Scales Committee. (2016). Measurement instruments to assess posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson’s disease: Critique and recommendations. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 31(9), 1342–1355.

Busse, M. E., Pearson, O. R., Van Deursen, R., & Wiles, C. M. (2004). Quantified measurement of activity provides insight into motor function and recovery in neurological disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75(6), 884–888.

Calne, D. B. (1989). Current concepts on the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 4(S1), 11-14.

Canning, C. G., Alison, J. A., Allen, N. E., & Groeller, H. (1997). Parkinson’s disease: an investigation of exercise capacity, respiratory function, and gait. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78(2), 199–207. Retrieved from papers://5a68cd75-9e27-4626-8d94-057f1df96060/Paper/p669.

Cano-De-La-Cuerda, R., Pérez-De-Heredia, M., Miangolarra-Page, J., Muñoz-Hellín, E., & Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, C. (2009). Is there muscular weakness in Parkinson’s disease? American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists, 89(1), 70–76. Retrieved from papers://5a68cd75-9e27-4626-8d94-057f1df96060/Paper/p2299.

Cantello, R., Gianelli, M., Bettucci, D., Civardi, C., De Angelis, M. S., & Mutani, R. (1991). Parkinson’s disease rigidity: Magnetic motor evoked potentials in a small hand muscle. Neurology, 41(9), 1449–1449.

Carroll, T. J., Riek, S., & Carson, R. G. (2002). The sites of neural adaptation induced by resistance training in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 544(2), 641–652.

Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 100(2), 126–31.

Chastin, S., Baker, K., Jones, D., Burn, D., Granat, M. H., & Rochester, L. (2010). The pattern of habitual sedentary behavior is different in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 25(13), 2114-2120.

Christiansen, C. L., Schenkman, M. L., McFann, K., Wolfe, P., & Kohrt, W. M. (2009). Walking economy in people with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 24(10), 1481–1487.

Churchill, M. J., Pflibsen, L., Sconce, M. D., Moore, C., Kim, K., & Meshul, C. K. (2017). Exercise in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease: Motor recovery but not restoration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Neuroscience, 359, 224–247.

Corcos, D. M., Robichaud, J. A., David, F. J., Leurgans, S. E., Vaillancourt, D. E., Poon, C., … & Comella, C. L. (2013). A two-year randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance exercise for Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 28(9), 1230–1240.

Da Silva, P. G. C., Domingues, D. D., De Carvalho, L. A., Allodi, S., & Correa, C. L. (2016). Neurotrophic factors in Parkinson’s disease are regulated by exercise: Evidence-based practice. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 363, 5-15.

Daniel, S. E., & Lees, A. J. (1993). Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank, London: overview and research. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum, 39, 165–172. Retrieved from:

David, F. J., Robichaud, J. A., Vaillancourt, D. E., Poon, C., Kohrt, W. M., Comella, C. L., & Corcos, D. M. (2016). Progressive resistance exercise restores some properties of the triphasic EMG pattern and improves bradykinesia: the PRET-PD randomized clinical trial. Journal of Neurophysiology, 116(5), 2298-2311.

De Assis, G. G., Gasanov, E. V., de Sousa, M. B. C., Kozacz, A., & Murawska-Cialowicz, E. (2018). Brain derived neutrophic factor, a link of aerobic metabolism to neuroplasticity. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 69(3), 351-358.

Delwaide, P. J., Pepin, J. L., & de Noordhout Maertens, A. (1993). Contribution of reticular nuclei to the pathophysiology of parkinsonian rigidity. Advances in neurology, 60, 381–385.

Ebersbach, G., Moreau, C., Gandor, F., Defebvre, L., & Devos, D. (2013). Clinical syndromes: Parkinsonian gait. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 28(11), 1552–1559.

Elbers, R., van Wegen, E. E. H., Rochester, L., Hetherington, V., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A.-M., … & Kwakkel, G. (2009). Is impact of fatigue an independent factor associated with physical activity in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease? Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 24(10), 1512–1518.

Ellis, T., Cavanaugh, J. T., Earhart, G. M., Ford, M. P., Foreman, K. B., Fredman, L., … & Dibble, L. E. (2011). Factors associated with exercise behavior in people with Parkinson disease. Physical Therapy, 91(12), 1838–1848.

Falvo, M. J., Schilling, B. K., & Earhart, G. M. (2008). Parkinson’s disease and resistive exercise: rationale, review, and recommendations. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 23(1), 1–11.

Fertl, E., Doppelbauer, A., & Auff, E. (1993). Physical activity and sports in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease in comparison with healthy seniors. Journal of Neural Transmission - Parkinson’s Disease and Dementia Section, 5(2), 157-161.

Forno, L. S. (1996). Neuropathology of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 55(3), 259–272. Retrieved from:

Fox, S. H., Katzenschlager, R., Lim, S.-Y., Barton, B., de Bie, R. M. A., Seppi, K., … & Sampaio, C. (2018). International Parkinson and movement disorder society evidence-based medicine review: Update on treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 33(8), 1248–1266.

Frazzitta, G., Maestri, R., Ghilardi, M. F., Riboldazzi, G., Perini, M., Bertotti, G., … & Comi, C. (2014). Intensive rehabilitation increases BDNF serum levels in parkinsonian patients: A randomized study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 28(2), 163-168.

Friedman, J. H., & Abrantes, A. M. (2012). Self perceived weakness in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18(7), 887–889.

Gerecke, K. M., Jiao, Y., Pagala, V., & Smeyne, R. J. (2012). Exercise does not protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in BDNF haploinsufficient mice. PloS One , 7(8), e43250.

Gibbons, T. E., Pence, B. D., Petr, G., Ossyra, J. M., Mach, H. C., Bhattacharya, T. K., … & Woods, J. A. (2014). Voluntary wheel running, but not a diet containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and β-alanine, improves learning, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 272, 131-140.

Hallett, M. (2014). Tremor: Pathophysiology. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20, 118-122.

Hammond, K. G., Pfeiffer, R. F., LeDoux, M. S., & Schilling, B. K. (2017). Neuromuscular rate of force development deficit in Parkinson disease. Clinical Biomechanics, 45, 14-18.

Huang, X., Mahoney, J. M., Lewis, M. M., Guangwei Du, Piazza, S. J., & Cusumano, J. P. (2012). Both coordination and symmetry of arm swing are reduced in Parkinson’s disease. Gait and Posture, 35(3), 373-377.

Huang, Y. Z., Chang, F. Y., Liu, W. C., Chuang, Y. F., Chuang, L. L., & Chang, Y. J. (2017). Fatigue and Muscle Strength Involving Walking Speed in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights for Developing Rehabilitation Strategy for PD. Neural Plasticity. 2017.

Inkster, L. M., Eng, J. J., MacIntyre, D. L., & Stoessl, J. (2003). Leg muscle strength is reduced in Parkinson’s disease and relates to the ability to rise from a chair. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 18(2), 157–162.

Jellinger, K. A. (2012). Neuropathology of sporadic Parkinson’s disease: Evaluation and changes of concepts. Movement Disorders, 27(1), 8–30. article.

Kakinuma, S., Nogaki, H., Pramanik, B., & Morimatsu, M. (1998). Muscle weakness in Parkinson’s disease: isokinetic study of the lower limbs. European Neurology, 39(4), 218-222.

Katzel, L. I., Sorkin, J. D., Macko, R. F., Smith, B., Ivey, F. M., & Shulman, L. M. (2011). Repeatability of aerobic capacity measurements in Parkinson disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(12), 2381–2387.

Kim, S. D., Allen, N. E., Canning, C. G., & Fung, V. S. C. (2013). Postural instability in patients with Parkinson’s disease: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS Drugs, 27(2), 97–112.

Kwakkel, G., de Goede, C. J. T., & van Wegen, E. E. H. (2007). Impact of physical therapy for Parkinson’s disease: a critical review of the literature. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 13(3), 478-487.

LaHue, S. C., Comella, C. L., & Tanner, C. M. (2016). The best medicine? The influence of physical activity and inactivity on Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 31(10), 1444–1454.

Lord, S., Galna, B., & Rochester, L. (2013). Moving forward on gait measurement: Toward a more refined approach. Movement Disorders, 28(11), 1534–1543.

Low, D. A., Vichayanrat, E., Iodice, V., & Mathias, C. J. (2014). Exercise hemodynamics in Parkinson’s disease and autonomic dysfunction. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 20(5), 549–553.

Martinez-Martin, P., Rodriguez-Blazquez, C., Kurtis, M. M., Chaudhuri, K. R., & NMSS Validation Group. (2011). The impact of non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 26(3), 399–406.

Mavrommati, F., Collett, J., Franssen, M., Meaney, A., Sexton, C., Dennis-West, A., … & Dawes, H. (2017). Exercise response in Parkinson’s disease: Insights from a cross-sectional comparison with sedentary controls and a per-protocol analysis of a randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal Open, 7(12), 1-8.

Moreau, M. S., Meunier, S., Vidailhet, M., Pol, S., Galitzky, M., Rascol, O., … & De, L. (2002). Transmission of group II heteronymous pathways is enhanced in rigid lower limb of de novo patients with Parkinson ’ s disease. Brain, 125(9), 2125-2133.

Moreno Catalá, M., Woitalla, D., & Arampatzis, A. (2013). Central factors explain muscle weakness in young fallers with Parkinson’s disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27(8), 753-759.

Morris, M. E., Iansek, R., Matyas, T. A, & Summers, J. J. (1994). Ability to modulate walking cadence remains intact in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 57(12), 1532–1534.

Morris, M. E., Iansek, R., Matyas, T. A, & Summers, J. J. (1996). Stride length regulation in Parkinson ’ s disease Normalization strategies and underlying mechanisms. Brain, 119, 551–568.

Nagahara, A. H., & Tuszynski, M. H. (2011). Potential therapeutic uses of BDNF in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery, 10(3), 209-219.

Ni, M., & Signorile, J. F. (2017). High-speed resistance training modifies load-velocity and load-power relationships in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(10), 2866-2875.

Okuma, Y. (2014). Freezing of gait and falls in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 4(2), 255–260.

Pääsuke, M., Ereline, J., Gapeyeva, H., Joost, K., Mõttus, K., & Taba, P. (2004). Leg-extension strength and chair-rise performance in elderly women with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity , 12(4), 511-524.

Pääsuke, M., Mõttus, K., Ereline, J., Gapeyeva, H., & Taba, P. (2002). Lower limb performance in older female patients with Parkinson’s disease. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 14(3), 185-191.

Parkinson, J. (1817). An essay on the shaking palsy. 1817. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Penney, J. B., & Young, A. B. (1983). Speculations on the functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 6, 73–94.

Petzinger, G. M., Holschneider, D. P., Fisher, B. E., McEwen, S., Kintz, N., Halliday, M., … & Jakowec, M. W. (2015). The Effects of Exercise on Dopamine Neurotransmission in Parkinson’s Disease: Targeting Neuroplasticity to Modulate Basal Ganglia Circuitry. Brain Plasticity (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 1(1), 29–39.

Protas, E. J., Stanley, R. K., Jankovic, J., & MacNeill, B. (1996). Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to upper- and lower-extremity exercise in men with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Physical Therapy, 76(1), 34–40. Retrieved from:

Rafferty, M. R., Prodoehl, J., Robichaud, J. A., David, F. J., Poon, C., Goelz, L. C., … & Corcos, D. M. (2017). Effects of 2 years of exercise on gait impairment in people with Parkinson Disease: The PRET-PD randomized trial. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 41(1), 21.

Ramazzina, I., Bernazzoli, B., & Costantino, C. (2017). Systematic review on strength training in Parkinson’s disease: an unsolved question. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 12, 619–628.

Rhyu, I. J., Bytheway, J. A., Kohler, S. J., Lange, H., Lee, K. J., Boklewski, J., … & Cameron, J. L. (2010). Effects of aerobic exercise training on cognitive function and cortical vascularity in monkeys. Neuroscience, 167(4), 1239-1248.

Rochester, L., Jones, D., Hetherington, V., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A.-M., Kwakkel, G., & van Wegen, E. (2006). Gait and gait-related activities and fatigue in Parkinson’s disease: what is the relationship? Disability and Rehabilitation, 28(22), 1365–1371.

Rodriguez-Oroz, M. C., Jahanshahi, M., Krack, P., Litvan, I., Macias, R., Bezard, E., & Obeso, J. A. (2009). Initial clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease: features and pathophysiological mechanisms. The Lancet Neurology, 8(12), 1128-1139.

Roeder, L., Costello, J. T., Smith, S. S., Stewart, I. B., & Kerr, G. K. (2015). Effects of resistance training on measures of muscular strength in people with Parkinson’s Disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(7), 1–23.

Saltin, B., & Landin, S. (1975). Work capacity, muscle strength and SDH activity in both legs of hemiparetic patients and patients with parkinson’s disease. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 35(6), 531-538.

Sasco, A. J., Paffenbarger, R. S., Gendre, I., & Wing, A. L. (1992). The Role of Physical Exercise in the Occurrence of Parkinson’s Disease. Archives of Neurology, 49(4), 360-365.

Scalzo, P., Kümmer, A., Bretas, T. L., Cardoso, F., & Teixeira, A. L. (2010). Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 257(4), 540–545.

Schapira, A. H. V, & Olanow, C. W. (2004). Neuroprotection in Parkinson Disease: Mysteries, Myths, and Misconceptions. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(3), 358-364.

Shahed, J., & Jankovic, J. (2007). Motor symptoms in Parkinson ’ s disease. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 83, 329-342.

Shu, H.-F., Yang, T., Yu, S.-X., Huang, H.-D., Jiang, L.-L., Gu, J.-W., & Kuang, Y.-Q. (2014). Aerobic Exercise for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e100503.

Shulman, L. M., Katzel, L. I., Ivey, F. M., Sorkin, J. D., Favors, K., Anderson, K. E., … & Macko, R. F. (2013). Randomized clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise for patients with Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurology, 70(2), 183–190.

Silva-Batista, C., Corcos, D. M., Barroso, R., David, F. J., Kanegusuku, H., Forjaz, C., … & Ugrinowitsch, C. (2017). Instability Resistance Training Improves Neuromuscular Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(4), 652–660.

Skidmore, F. M., Mackman, C. A., Pav, B., Shulman, L. M., Garvan, C., Macko, R. F., & Heilman, K. M. (2008). Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(9).

Skinner, J. W., Christou, E. A., & Hass, C. J. (2019). Lower Extremity Muscle Strength and Force Variability in Persons With Parkinson Disease. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy : JNPT, 43(1), 56–62.

Spillantini, M. G., Schmidt, M. L., Lee, V. M.-Y., Trojanowski, J. Q., Jakes, R., & Goedert, M. (1997). Alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Nature, 388(6645), 839–40.

Stacy, M. (2009). Medical Treatment of Parkinson Disease. Neurologic Clinics, 27(3), 605-631.

Stanley, R. K., Protas, E. J., & Jankovic, J. (1999). Exercise performance in those having Parkinson’s disease and healthy normals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(6), 761-766.

Stel, V. S., Smit, J. H., Pluijm, S. M. F., Visser, M., Deeg, D. J. H., & Lips, P. (2004). Comparison of the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire with a 7-day diary and pedometer. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 57(3), 252-258.

Tang, S. W., Chu, E., Hui, T., Helmeste, D., & Law, C. (2008). Influence of exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in healthy human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 431(1), 62-65.

Thaut, M. H., McIntosh, G. C., Rice, R. R., Miller, R. A., Rathbun, J., & Brault, J. M. (1996). Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson’s disease patients. Movement Disorders, 11(2), 193-200.

Twelves, D., Perkins, K. S. M., & Counsell, C. (2003). Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 18(1), 19-31.

Van Den Eeden, S. K. (2003). Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease: Variation by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(11), 1015-1022.

van Hilten, J. J., Hoogland, G., van der Velde, E, Middelkoop, H., Kerkhof, G. A, & Roos, R. A. (1993). Diurnal effects of motor activity and fatigue in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 56(8), 874–877.

van Nimwegen, M., Speelman, A. D., Hofman-van Rossum, E. J. M., Overeem, S., Deeg, D. J. H., Borm, G. F., … & Munneke, M. (2011). Physical inactivity in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 258(12), 2214–2221.

Velseboer, D. C., de Haan, R. J., Wieling, W., Goldstein, D. S., & de Bie, R. M. A. (2011). Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 17(10), 724-729.

Voorrips, L. E., Ravelli, A. C., Dongelmans, P. C., Deurenberg, P., & Van Staveren, W. A. (1991). A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(8), 974–979.

Wirdefeldt, K., Adami, H. O., Cole, P., Trichopoulos, D., & Mandel, J. (2011). Epidemiology and etiology of Parkinson’s disease: A review of the evidence. European Journal of Epidemiology, 26(1), 1.

Wood, B. H., Bilclough, J. A., Bowron, A., & Walker, R. W. (2002). Incidence and prediction of falls in Parkinson’s disease: A prospective multidisciplinary study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 72(6), 721-725.

Yang, F., Trolle Lagerros, Y., Bellocco, R., Adami, H.-O., Fang, F., Pedersen, N. L., & Wirdefeldt, K. (2015). Physical activity and risk of Parkinson’s disease in the Swedish National March Cohort. Brain, 138(2), 269-275.




Most read articles by the same author(s)