Evaluation of arm-to-leg coordination in freestyle swimming

Authors

  • Jesús Martínez Sobrino Asociación Española de Ciencias del Deporte
  • Santiago Veiga Fernández
  • Archit Navandar

Abstract

This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-to-leg coordination in the freestyle swimming. Eight international-level youth swimmers were tested on a 50m swim at the speed of their 400m personal best (V400), and recorded at 60Hz bilaterally. The discrete relative phase angles between the arm-to-leg movements were identified by video analysis, using four key points adapted from Maglischo (2009): the hand entry corresponding to the lowest point of the ipsilateral kick (C1), the arm catch corresponding to the lowest point of the ipsilateral kick (C2), the lowest point on the arm pull corresponding with the lowest point of the contralateral kick (C3), and the hand exit corresponding to the lowest point of the ipsilateral kick (C4). International-level youth swimmers showed arm-to-leg discrete relative phase values of355.9º±32.7º, 0.5º±38.7º, 352.9º±35.1º and17.5º±33.0º, respectively, for each of the four key events on the freestyle swimming cycle. This coordinative parameter allowed evaluating if the arm-to-leg movements of the swimmer were coordinated in-phase (between 330º and 30º), anti-phase (between 150º and 210º) or out-of-phase on the different phases of freestyle swimming. Therefore, it represented a practical tool to be used by coaches and researchers to quantitatively evaluate their swimming technique.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Barbosa, T., Keskinen, K., Fernandes, R., Colaco, P., Carmo, C., & Vilas-Boas, J. (2005). Relationships Between Energetic, Stroke Determinants, and Velocity in Butterfly. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(10), 841-846.

Bardy, B.G., Oullier, O., Bootsma, R.J., & Stoffregen, T.A. (2002). Dynamics of human postural transitions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28(3), 499-514.

Chollet, D., Chalies, S., & Chatard, J. (2000). A new index of coordination for the crawl: description and usefulness. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 54-59.

Chollet, D., Seifert, L., Boulesteix, L., & Carter, M. (2006). Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27, 322-329.

Chollet, D., Seifert, L. M., & Carter, M. (2008).Arm coordination in elite backstroke swimmers. Journal of Sports Science, 26(7), 675–682.

Chollet, D., Seifert, L., Leblanc, H., Boulesteix, L., &Carter, M. (2004). Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 482-495.

Chow, J.Y., Davids, K., Button, C., & Koh, M. (2008). Coordination changes in a discrete multi-articular action as a function of practice. Acta Psychologica, 127, 163-176.

Counsilman, J. E. (1982). La natación: Ciencia y técnica. Barcelona, España: Hispano Europea.

Craig, A. B., &Pendergast, D. R. (1979). Relationships of stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports, 11(3), 278-283.

Deschodt, V.J., Arsac, L.M., & Rouard, A.H., (1999). Relative contribution of arms and legs in humans to propulsion in 25-m sprint front-crawl swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, 192±199

Diedrich, F.J., & Warren, W.H. (1995). Why change gaits? Dynamics of the walk-run transition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21(1), 183-202.

Dominguez-Castells, R., &Arellano, R. (2012). Effect of Different Loads on Stroke and Coordination Parameters During Freestyle Semi-Tethered Swimming. Journal of Human Kinetics, 32, 33-41.

Gatta, G., Cortessi, M., &Di Michele, R. (2012). Power production of the lower limbs in flutter-kick

Swimming. Sports Biomechanics, 11(4), 480–491.

Gourgoulis, V., Boli, A., Aggeloussis, N., Toubekis, A., Panagiotis, A., Panagiotis, K., Vezos, N., Michalopoulou, M., Kambas, A., & Mavromatis, G. (2014). The effect of leg kick on sprint front crawl swimming.Journal of Sports Sciences, 32 (3), 278-289.

Maglischo, E. W. (2003). Swimming fastest. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Maglischo, E. W. (2009). Natación, técnica, entrenamiento y competición. Badalona, España: Paidotribo.

Millet, G. P., Chollet, D., Chalies, S., & Chatard, J. C. (2002). Coordination in front crawl in elite triathletes and elite swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 99-104.

Newell, K. M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M. G. Wade & H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspect of coordination and control (pp. 341–360). Amsterdam: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Nikoledis, T., Kollias, I., &Hatzitaki, V. (2005). Bilateral inter-arm coordination in freestyle swimming: Effect of skill level and swimming speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), 737-745.

Potdevin, F., Bril, B., Sidney, M.,& Pelayo, P. (2006)Stroke Frequency and Arm Coordination in Front Crawl Swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27, 193 – 198.

Robertson, G., Caldwell, G., Hamill, J., Kamen, G., & Whittlesey, S.(2004). Research methods in biomechanics. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Sanders, R.H., & Psycharakis, S.G., (2009). Rolling rhythms in front crawl swimming with six-beat kick. Journal of Biomechanics, 42, 273-279.

Seifert, L., Boulesteix, L., Chollet, D., & Vilas-Boas, J. (2008). Differences in spatial-temporal parameters and arm–leg coordination in butterfly stroke as a function of race pace, skill and gender. Human Movement Science, 27(1), 96-111.

Seifert, L.,&Chollet, D. (2005). A new index of flat breaststroke propulsion: A comparison of elite men and women. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 309-320.

Seifert, L., Chollet, D., & Bardy, B. G. (2004). Effect of swimming velocity on arm coordination in the front crawl: a dynamic analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(7), 651-660.

Seifert, L., Delignieres, D., Boulesteix, L., & Chollet, D. (2007). Effect of expertise on butterfly stroke coordination. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(2), 131-141.

Telles, T., Barbosa, A.C., Campos, M.H., & Andries Júnior, O. (2011). Effect of hand paddles and parachute on the index of coordination of competitive crawl-strokers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(4), 431-438.

Yanai, T., (2003). Stroke frequency in front crawl: its mechanical link to the fluid forces required in non-propulsive directions. Journal of Biomechanics, 36.

Zanone, P.G., &Kelso, J.A.S. (1997). Coordination Dynamics of Learning and Transfer: Collective

and Component Levels. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23(5), 1454-1480.

Downloads

Published

2017-07-19

Issue

Section

European Journal of Human Movement

Most read articles by the same author(s)