Spanish Validation of BRUMS in Sporting and Non-Sporting Populations



mood states in sporting contexts. The BRUMS has also proven to be useful for evaluating the impact of exercise on emotions and moods. Specifically, positive mood appears to improve performance by helping athletes to maximally use their skills and promoting a more enjoyable practice. Although BRUMS has been translated to some languages, to our knowledge, a validated Spanish version does not yet exist. Material and Methods: The main purpose, therefore, of this study was to determine the factorial validity of the BRUMS for use with a Spanish sample. A total of 757 (aged between18-65 years) women and men completed the BRUMS. As secondary aims we evaluated overall mood state differences between (a) sporting and non-sporting populations and (b) male and female participants. Results and Discussion: The results showed that a Spanish version of BRUMS is a valuable measure of mood states in adult Spanish-speakers. However, results suggest that a shorter version better fits the six factors. Interestingly we found significant differences between both non-sporting/sporting groups and between women/men. Results are discussed in relation to previous works on sport performance and gender differences.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Amado-Boccara, I., Donnet, D., & Olié, J.P. (1993). La notion d'humeur en psychologie [The concept of mood in psychology]. Encephale, 19, 117–22

Antonakis, J., & Bastardoz, N. (2013). Swain: Stata module to correct the SEM chi-square overidentification test in small sample sizes or complex models (Statistical Software Components S457617). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Department of Economics. Retrieved from bocode/s457617.htm

Berger, B. G., & Motl, R. W. (2000). Exercise and mood: A selective review and synthesis of research employing the profile of mood states. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12(1), 69–92.

Brellenthin, A. G., Crombie, K. M., Hillard, C. J., & Koltyn, K. F. (2017). Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Caracuel, J. C., Andreu, R. & Pérez, E. (1994). Análisis psicológico del arbitraje y juicio deportivos: una aproximación desde el modelo interconductual [Psychological analysis of sports arbitration and judgment: an approach from the interconductual model]. Revista Motricidad, 1, 5-24.F

Copestake, S., Gray, N. S., & Snowden, R. J. (2013). Emotional intelligence and psychopathy: a comparison of trait and ability measures. Emotion, 13(4), 691–702.

Cole, D.A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584–594.

Hashim, H. A., Zulkifli, E. Z., & Yusof Hanafi, H. A. (2010). Factorial validation of Malaysian adapted brunel mood scale in an adolescent sample. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 1(4), 185–194.

Hayduk, L., Cummings, G., Boadu, K., Pazderka-Robinson, H., & Boulianne, S. (2007). Testing! testing! one, two, three–Testing the theory in structural equation models! Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 841-850.

Hayduk, L. A., & Littvay, L. (2012). Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12:159.

Herzog, W., Boomsma, A., & Reinecke, S. (2007). The model-size effect on traditional and modified tests of covariance structures. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 361-390.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.

Iliescu, D., Ilie, A., Ispas, D., & Ion, A. (2013). Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29(2), 121–128.

Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2014). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 4(3),486-507.

Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., & Allen, M. S. (2016). Emotional intelligence in sport and exercise: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(8), 826-874.

Lan, M. F., Lane, A. M., Roy, J., & Hanin, N. A. (2012). Validity of the Brunel Mood Scale for Use with Malaysian Athletes. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11, 131-135.

Lane, A. M., Devonport, T. J., Soos, I., Karsai, I., Leibinger, E., & Hamar, P. (2010). Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 9(3), 388–392.

Lane, A. M., Soos, I., & Leibinger, E. (2007). Validity of the Brunel Mood Scale for use with UK, Italian and Hungarian athletes. In mood and human performance. Conceptual, measurement, and applied Issues (pp. 119-130). New York: Nova Publishers.

Lane, A.M., Thelwell, R., & Devonport, T.J. (2009) Emotional intelligence and mood states associated with optimal performance. E-journal of Applied Psychology 5(1), 67-73.

Lastella, M., Roach, G. D., Halson, S. L., Martin, D. T., West, N. P., & Sargent, C. (2015). The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 55(12), 1555–1564.

Lattari, E., Portugal, E., Moraes, H., Machado, S., Santos, T. M., & Deslandes, A. C. (2014). Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review. CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets, 13(6), 972–980.

Leunes, A., & Burger, J. (2000). Profile of Mood States Research in Sport and Exercise Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12(1), 5–15.

Marrero, G., Martín–Albo, J., y Núñez, J. L. (2005). Psicología, arbitraje y juicio deportivo [Psychology, arbitration and sporting judgment]. In A. Hernández (Ed.), Psicología del deporte [Sport Psychology] Vol. III (pp. 139-156). Sevilla:Wanceulen Editorial Deportiva, S.L.

McDowell, C. P., Campbell, M. J., & Herring, M. P. (2016). Sex-Related Differences in Mood Responses to Acute Aerobic Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(9), 1798-1802.

McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego.

Morgan, W. P. (1974). Selected psychological considerations in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 45, 374-390. doi:10.1080/10671315.1974.10615285

Morgan, W. P., & Johnson, R. W. (1978). Personality characteristics of successful and unsuccessful oarsmen. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 9,119-133.

Reed, J., & Ones, D.S. (2006).The effect of acute aerobic exercise on positive activated affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Sport Exercise, 7(5), 477-514.

Reichert, M., tost, H., reinhard, I., schlotz, W., zipf, A., salize, H.-J., et al. (2017). Exercise versus Nonexercise Activity: E-diaries Unravel Distinct Effects on Mood. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(4), 763–773.

Rocheleau, C. A., Webster, G. D., Bryan, A., & Frazier, J. (2004). Moderators of the relationship between exercise and mood changes: gender, exertion level, and workout duration. Psychology & Health, 19(4), 491–506.

Rouveix, M., Duclos, M., Gouarne, C., Beauvieux, M., & Filaire, E. (2006). The 24 h Urinary Cortisol/Cortisone Ratio and Epinephrine/Norepinephrine Ratio for Monitoring Training in Young Female Tennis Players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(11), 856–863.

Ruiz, M., & Hanin, Y. (2004). Metaphoric description and individualized emotion profiling of performance states in top karate athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 258-273.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.

Steiger, J. H. & Lind, J. (1980). Statistically-based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the Annual Spring Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City.

Swain, A.J. (1975). Analysis of parametric structures for variance matrices. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Adelaide.

Tenenbaum, G., Hatfield, B. D., Eklund, R. C., Land, W. M., Calmeiro, L., Razon, S., & Schack, T. (2009). A conceptual framework for studying emotions–cognitions–performance linkage under conditions that vary in perceived pressure. In Mind and motion: The bidirectional link between thought and action, 174, 159–178.

Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., & Fogarty, G. J. (2003). Construct validity of the Profile of Mood States — Adolescents for use with adults. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4(2), 125–139.

Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(11), 861–872.

Terry, P., Lim, J. y Parsons-Smith, R. (2013). In The Mood. An online mood assessment based on the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS). Recuperado de:

Van Wijk, C. H. (2011). The Brunel Mood Scale: A South African norm study. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 17(2), 44-54.






Original Research